Home » Android » Android Bluetooth Connection Example

About Chryssa Aliferi

Chryssa Aliferi
Chryssa is a Computer Science graduate from Athens University of Economic and Business. During her studies, Chryssa carried out a great variety of projects ranging from networking to software engineering. She is very keen on front end development especially on mobile technologies and web applications. She has worked as a junior Software Engineer in the telecommunications area and currently works as an Android Developer.

Android Bluetooth Connection Example

The Android platform includes support for the Bluetooth network stack, which allows a device to wirelessly exchange data with other Bluetooth devices.

The Android Bluetooth APIs provide us access to the Bluetooth functionality in order to wirelessly connect to other Bluetooth devices, enabling point-to-point and multipoint wireless features.

So, if we want to exchange data between different devices through our application, Bluetooth is a common way to connect two devices that support Bluetooth.

Want to create a kick-ass Android App?

Subscribe to our newsletter and download the Android Programming Cookbook right now!

With this book, you will delve into the fundamentals of Android programming. You will understand user input, views and layouts. Furthermore, you will learn how to communicate over Bluetooth and also leverage Google Maps into your application!

 

In this example we are going to create an application which activates Bluetooth, finds Bluetooth devices that may be near, scans for other undiscovered Bluetooth devices and finally uses Bluetooth connection to create a Chat Application between two devices.

1. Introduction

For our example will use the following tools in a Windows 64-bit or an OS X platform:

  • JDK 1.8
  • Android Studio 2.1.2
  • Android SDK 6.0
Tip
For this example we have used methods and implementation from the Android Bluetooth Example related to Android Bluetooth searching and pairing devices. We have also made use of the Android RecyclerView Example for the ui and layout of our Bluetooth Chat. Please visit them before starting the Android Bluetooth Connection Example

Let’s take a closer look:

2. Create a New Android Studio Project

Tip
You may skip project creation and jump directly to the beginning of the example below.

Open Android Studio and choose “Start a new Android Studio Project” in the welcome screen.

“Welcome to Android Studio” screen. Choose “Start a new Android Studio Project”.

“Welcome to Android Studio” screen. Choose “Start a new Android Studio Project”.

Specify the name of the application, the project and the package.

“Configure your new project” screen. Add your application name and the projects package name.

“Configure your new project” screen. Add your application name and the projects package name.

In the next window, select the form factors your app will run on.

“Target Android Devices” screen.

“Target Android Devices” screen.

In the next window you should choose to “Add an activity to Mobile”. In our example, we will choose to create a project with no activity, so choose: “Add no activity”.

“Add an activity to Mobile”. Choose: “Add no activity”.

“Add an activity to Mobile”. Choose: “Add no activity”.

Now press finish, and our project has just been created!

 

3. Create the layout of the BluetoothChat

Add a new xml file inside /res/layout folder, with name main_activity.xml. We should have /layout/main_activity.xml file and paste the code below.

main_activity.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical">

    <android.support.v7.widget.RecyclerView
        android:id="@+id/my_recycler_view"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="0dp"
        android:layout_weight="1"
        android:paddingLeft="10dp"
        android:paddingRight="10dp"
        android:scrollbars="vertical" />

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:orientation="horizontal">

        <EditText
            android:id="@+id/edit_text_out"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_gravity="bottom"
            android:layout_weight="1" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_send"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:text="@string/send" />
    </LinearLayout>

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:orientation="horizontal">

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/scan"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:onClick="connect"
            android:text="@string/connect" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/discoverable"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:onClick="discoverable"
            android:text="@string/discoverable" />
    </LinearLayout>
</LinearLayout>

4. Create the source code of the BluetoothChat

Add a new Java class inside src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/ so that we are going to have the src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/BluetoothChat.java file and paste the code below.

BluetoothChat.java

package com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.support.v7.widget.DefaultItemAnimator;
import android.support.v7.widget.LinearLayoutManager;
import android.support.v7.widget.RecyclerView;
import android.view.KeyEvent;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.View.OnClickListener;
import android.view.inputmethod.EditorInfo;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import com.javacodegeeks.R;

import androidRecyclerView.MessageAdapter;


public class BluetoothChat extends Activity {

    // Message types sent from the BluetoothChatService Handler
    public static final int MESSAGE_STATE_CHANGE = 1;
    public static final int MESSAGE_READ = 2;
    public static final int MESSAGE_WRITE = 3;
    public static final int MESSAGE_DEVICE_NAME = 4;
    public static final int MESSAGE_TOAST = 5;


    // Key names received from the BluetoothChatService Handler
    public static final String DEVICE_NAME = "device_name";
    public static final String TOAST = "toast";

    // Intent request codes
    private static final int REQUEST_CONNECT_DEVICE = 1;
    private static final int REQUEST_ENABLE_BT = 2;
    private EditText mOutEditText;
    private Button mSendButton;

    // Name of the connected device
    private String mConnectedDeviceName = null;
    // String buffer for outgoing messages
    private StringBuffer mOutStringBuffer;

    // Local Bluetooth adapter
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter = null;

    // Member object for the chat services
    private BluetoothChatService mChatService = null;

    private RecyclerView mRecyclerView;
    private LinearLayoutManager mLayoutManager;
    private MessageAdapter mAdapter;

    public int counter = 0;

    private List messageList = new ArrayList();

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        setContentView(R.layout.main_activity);

        mRecyclerView = (RecyclerView) findViewById(R.id.my_recycler_view);
        mRecyclerView.setHasFixedSize(true);
        mLayoutManager = new LinearLayoutManager(this);
        mRecyclerView.setLayoutManager(mLayoutManager);
        mAdapter = new MessageAdapter(getBaseContext(), messageList);
        mRecyclerView.setAdapter(mAdapter);
        mRecyclerView.setItemAnimator(new DefaultItemAnimator());
        mBluetoothAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();

        // If the adapter is null, then Bluetooth is not supported
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
            Toast.makeText(this, "Bluetooth is not available", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            finish();
            return;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onStart() {
        super.onStart();
        if (!mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
            Intent enableIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
            startActivityForResult(enableIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
        } else {
            if (mChatService == null) setupChat();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void onResume() {
        super.onResume();
        if (mChatService != null) {
            if (mChatService.getState() == BluetoothChatService.STATE_NONE) {
                mChatService.start();
            }
        }
    }

    private void setupChat() {
        mOutEditText = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.edit_text_out);
        mOutEditText.setOnEditorActionListener(mWriteListener);
        mSendButton = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button_send);
        mSendButton.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
            public void onClick(View v) {
                TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.edit_text_out);
                String message = view.getText().toString();
                sendMessage(message);
            }
        });

        // Initialize the BluetoothChatService to perform bluetooth connections
        mChatService = new BluetoothChatService(this, mHandler);

        // Initialize the buffer for outgoing messages
        mOutStringBuffer = new StringBuffer("");
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void onPause() {
        super.onPause();

    }

    @Override
    public void onStop() {
        super.onStop();

    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        // Stop the Bluetooth chat services
        if (mChatService != null) mChatService.stop();
    }

    private void ensureDiscoverable() {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter.getScanMode() !=
                BluetoothAdapter.SCAN_MODE_CONNECTABLE_DISCOVERABLE) {
            Intent discoverableIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_DISCOVERABLE);
            discoverableIntent.putExtra(BluetoothAdapter.EXTRA_DISCOVERABLE_DURATION, 300);
            startActivity(discoverableIntent);
        }
    }


    private void sendMessage(String message) {

        // Check that we're actually connected before trying anything
        if (mChatService.getState() != BluetoothChatService.STATE_CONNECTED) {
            Toast.makeText(this, R.string.not_connected, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            return;
        }
        // Check that there's actually something to send
        if (message.length() > 0) {
            // Get the message bytes and tell the BluetoothChatService to write
            byte[] send = message.getBytes();
            mChatService.write(send);
            // Reset out string buffer to zero and clear the edit text field
            mOutStringBuffer.setLength(0);
            mOutEditText.setText(mOutStringBuffer);
        }
    }

    // The action listener for the EditText widget, to listen for the return key
    private TextView.OnEditorActionListener mWriteListener =
            new TextView.OnEditorActionListener() {
                public boolean onEditorAction(TextView view, int actionId, KeyEvent event) {
                    // If the action is a key-up event on the return key, send the message
                    if (actionId == EditorInfo.IME_NULL && event.getAction() == KeyEvent.ACTION_UP) {
                        String message = view.getText().toString();
                        sendMessage(message);
                    }
                    return true;
                }
            };
    
    // The Handler that gets information back from the BluetoothChatService
    private final Handler mHandler = new Handler() {
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
                case MESSAGE_WRITE:
                    byte[] writeBuf = (byte[]) msg.obj;
                    // construct a string from the buffer
                    String writeMessage = new String(writeBuf);
                    mAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
                    messageList.add(new androidRecyclerView.Message(counter++, writeMessage, "Me"));
                    break;
                case MESSAGE_READ:
                    byte[] readBuf = (byte[]) msg.obj;
                    // construct a string from the valid bytes in the buffer
                    String readMessage = new String(readBuf, 0, msg.arg1);
                    mAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
                    messageList.add(new androidRecyclerView.Message(counter++, readMessage, mConnectedDeviceName));
                    break;
                case MESSAGE_DEVICE_NAME:
                    // save the connected device's name
                    mConnectedDeviceName = msg.getData().getString(DEVICE_NAME);
                    Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Connected to "
                            + mConnectedDeviceName, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
                    break;
                case MESSAGE_TOAST:
                    Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), msg.getData().getString(TOAST),
                            Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
                    break;
            }
        }
    };

    public void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
        switch (requestCode) {
            case REQUEST_CONNECT_DEVICE:
                // When DeviceListActivity returns with a device to connect
                if (resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK) {
                    // Get the device MAC address
                    String address = data.getExtras().getString(DeviceListActivity.EXTRA_DEVICE_ADDRESS);
                    // Get the BLuetoothDevice object
                    BluetoothDevice device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
                    // Attempt to connect to the device
                    mChatService.connect(device);
                }
                break;
            case REQUEST_ENABLE_BT:
                // When the request to enable Bluetooth returns
                if (resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK) {
                    // Bluetooth is now enabled, so set up a chat session
                    setupChat();
                } else {
                    // User did not enable Bluetooth or an error occured
                    Toast.makeText(this, R.string.bt_not_enabled_leaving, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
                    finish();
                }
        }
    }

    public void connect(View v) {
        Intent serverIntent = new Intent(this, DeviceListActivity.class);
        startActivityForResult(serverIntent, REQUEST_CONNECT_DEVICE);
    }

    public void discoverable(View v) {
        ensureDiscoverable();
    }
}

5. Create the source code of the BluetoothChatService

The BluetoothChatService class does all the work for setting up and managing Bluetooth connections with other devices. It has a thread that listens for incoming connections, a thread for connecting with a device, and a thread for performing data transmissions when connected.

So, add a new Java class inside src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/ so that we are going to have the src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/BluetoothChatService.java file and paste the code below.

BluetoothChatService.java

package com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample;

import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothServerSocket;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothSocket;
import android.content.Context;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * This class does all the work for setting up and managing Bluetooth
 * connections with other devices. It has a thread that listens for
 * incoming connections, a thread for connecting with a device, and a
 * thread for performing data transmissions when connected.
 */
public class BluetoothChatService {

    // Name for the SDP record when creating server socket
    private static final String NAME = "BluetoothChat";

    // Unique UUID for this application
    private static final UUID MY_UUID = UUID.fromString("fa87c0d0-afac-11de-8a39-0800200c9a66");

    // Member fields
    private final BluetoothAdapter mAdapter;
    private final Handler mHandler;
    private AcceptThread mAcceptThread;
    private ConnectThread mConnectThread;
    private ConnectedThread mConnectedThread;
    private int mState;

    // Constants that indicate the current connection state
    public static final int STATE_NONE = 0;       // we're doing nothing
    public static final int STATE_LISTEN = 1;     // now listening for incoming connections
    public static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 2; // now initiating an outgoing connection
    public static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 3;  // now connected to a remote device

    /**
     * Constructor. Prepares a new BluetoothChat session.
     *
     * @param context The UI Activity Context
     * @param handler A Handler to send messages back to the UI Activity
     */
    public BluetoothChatService(Context context, Handler handler) {
        mAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();
        mState = STATE_NONE;
        mHandler = handler;
    }

    /**
     * Set the current state of the chat connection
     *
     * @param state An integer defining the current connection state
     */
    private synchronized void setState(int state) {
        mState = state;
        // Give the new state to the Handler so the UI Activity can update
        mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_STATE_CHANGE, state, -1).sendToTarget();
    }

    /**
     * Return the current connection state.
     */
    public synchronized int getState() {
        return mState;
    }

    /**
     * Start the chat service. Specifically start AcceptThread to begin a
     * session in listening (server) mode. Called by the Activity onResume()
     */
    public synchronized void start() {
        // Cancel any thread attempting to make a connection
        if (mConnectThread != null) {
            mConnectThread.cancel();
            mConnectThread = null;
        }
        // Cancel any thread currently running a connection
        if (mConnectedThread != null) {
            mConnectedThread.cancel();
            mConnectedThread = null;
        }
        // Start the thread to listen on a BluetoothServerSocket
        if (mAcceptThread == null) {
            mAcceptThread = new AcceptThread();
            mAcceptThread.start();
        }
        setState(STATE_LISTEN);
    }

    /**
     * Start the ConnectThread to initiate a connection to a remote device.
     *
     * @param device The BluetoothDevice to connect
     */
    public synchronized void connect(BluetoothDevice device) {
        // Cancel any thread attempting to make a connection
        if (mState == STATE_CONNECTING) {
            if (mConnectThread != null) {
                mConnectThread.cancel();
                mConnectThread = null;
            }
        }
        // Cancel any thread currently running a connection
        if (mConnectedThread != null) {
            mConnectedThread.cancel();
            mConnectedThread = null;
        }
        // Start the thread to connect with the given device
        mConnectThread = new ConnectThread(device);
        mConnectThread.start();
        setState(STATE_CONNECTING);
    }

    /**
     * Start the ConnectedThread to begin managing a Bluetooth connection
     *
     * @param socket The BluetoothSocket on which the connection was made
     * @param device The BluetoothDevice that has been connected
     */
    public synchronized void connected(BluetoothSocket socket, BluetoothDevice device) {
        // Cancel the thread that completed the connection
        if (mConnectThread != null) {
            mConnectThread.cancel();
            mConnectThread = null;
        }
        // Cancel any thread currently running a connection
        if (mConnectedThread != null) {
            mConnectedThread.cancel();
            mConnectedThread = null;
        }
        // Cancel the accept thread because we only want to connect to one device
        if (mAcceptThread != null) {
            mAcceptThread.cancel();
            mAcceptThread = null;
        }
        // Start the thread to manage the connection and perform transmissions
        mConnectedThread = new ConnectedThread(socket);
        mConnectedThread.start();
        // Send the name of the connected device back to the UI Activity
        Message msg = mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_DEVICE_NAME);
        Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
        bundle.putString(BluetoothChat.DEVICE_NAME, device.getName());
        msg.setData(bundle);
        mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
        setState(STATE_CONNECTED);
    }

    /**
     * Stop all threads
     */
    public synchronized void stop() {
        if (mConnectThread != null) {
            mConnectThread.cancel();
            mConnectThread = null;
        }
        if (mConnectedThread != null) {
            mConnectedThread.cancel();
            mConnectedThread = null;
        }
        if (mAcceptThread != null) {
            mAcceptThread.cancel();
            mAcceptThread = null;
        }
        setState(STATE_NONE);
    }

    /**
     * Write to the ConnectedThread in an unsynchronized manner
     *
     * @param out The bytes to write
     * @see ConnectedThread#write(byte[])
     */
    public void write(byte[] out) {
        // Create temporary object
        ConnectedThread r;
        // Synchronize a copy of the ConnectedThread
        synchronized (this) {
            if (mState != STATE_CONNECTED) return;
            r = mConnectedThread;
        }
        // Perform the write unsynchronized
        r.write(out);
    }

    /**
     * Indicate that the connection attempt failed and notify the UI Activity.
     */
    private void connectionFailed() {
        setState(STATE_LISTEN);
        // Send a failure message back to the Activity
        Message msg = mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_TOAST);
        Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
        bundle.putString(BluetoothChat.TOAST, "Unable to connect device");
        msg.setData(bundle);
        mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
    }

    /**
     * Indicate that the connection was lost and notify the UI Activity.
     */
    private void connectionLost() {
        setState(STATE_LISTEN);
        // Send a failure message back to the Activity
        Message msg = mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_TOAST);
        Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
        bundle.putString(BluetoothChat.TOAST, "Device connection was lost");
        msg.setData(bundle);
        mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
    }

    /**
     * This thread runs while listening for incoming connections. It behaves
     * like a server-side client. It runs until a connection is accepted
     * (or until cancelled).
     */
    private class AcceptThread extends Thread {
        // The local server socket
        private final BluetoothServerSocket mmServerSocket;

        public AcceptThread() {
            BluetoothServerSocket tmp = null;
            // Create a new listening server socket
            try {
                tmp = mAdapter.listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(NAME, MY_UUID);
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
            mmServerSocket = tmp;
        }

        public void run() {
            setName("AcceptThread");
            BluetoothSocket socket = null;
            // Listen to the server socket if we're not connected
            while (mState != STATE_CONNECTED) {
                try {
                    // This is a blocking call and will only return on a
                    // successful connection or an exception
                    socket = mmServerSocket.accept();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    break;
                }
                // If a connection was accepted
                if (socket != null) {
                    synchronized (BluetoothChatService.this) {
                        switch (mState) {
                            case STATE_LISTEN:
                            case STATE_CONNECTING:
                                // Situation normal. Start the connected thread.
                                connected(socket, socket.getRemoteDevice());
                                break;
                            case STATE_NONE:
                            case STATE_CONNECTED:
                                // Either not ready or already connected. Terminate new socket.
                                try {
                                    socket.close();
                                } catch (IOException e) {
                                }
                                break;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        public void cancel() {
            try {
                mmServerSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * This thread runs while attempting to make an outgoing connection
     * with a device. It runs straight through; the connection either
     * succeeds or fails.
     */
    private class ConnectThread extends Thread {
        private final BluetoothSocket mmSocket;
        private final BluetoothDevice mmDevice;

        public ConnectThread(BluetoothDevice device) {
            mmDevice = device;
            BluetoothSocket tmp = null;
            // Get a BluetoothSocket for a connection with the
            // given BluetoothDevice
            try {
                tmp = device.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(MY_UUID);
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
            mmSocket = tmp;
        }

        public void run() {
            setName("ConnectThread");
            // Always cancel discovery because it will slow down a connection
            mAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
            // Make a connection to the BluetoothSocket
            try {
                // This is a blocking call and will only return on a
                // successful connection or an exception
                mmSocket.connect();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                connectionFailed();
                // Close the socket
                try {
                    mmSocket.close();
                } catch (IOException e2) {
                }
                // Start the service over to restart listening mode
                BluetoothChatService.this.start();
                return;
            }
            // Reset the ConnectThread because we're done
            synchronized (BluetoothChatService.this) {
                mConnectThread = null;
            }
            // Start the connected thread
            connected(mmSocket, mmDevice);
        }

        public void cancel() {
            try {
                mmSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * This thread runs during a connection with a remote device.
     * It handles all incoming and outgoing transmissions.
     */
    private class ConnectedThread extends Thread {
        private final BluetoothSocket mmSocket;
        private final InputStream mmInStream;
        private final OutputStream mmOutStream;

        public ConnectedThread(BluetoothSocket socket) {
            mmSocket = socket;
            InputStream tmpIn = null;
            OutputStream tmpOut = null;
            // Get the BluetoothSocket input and output streams
            try {
                tmpIn = socket.getInputStream();
                tmpOut = socket.getOutputStream();
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
            mmInStream = tmpIn;
            mmOutStream = tmpOut;
        }

        public void run() {
            byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
            int bytes;
            // Keep listening to the InputStream while connected
            while (true) {
                try {
                    // Read from the InputStream
                    bytes = mmInStream.read(buffer);
                    // Send the obtained bytes to the UI Activity
                    mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_READ, bytes, -1, buffer)
                            .sendToTarget();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    connectionLost();
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

        /**
         * Write to the connected OutStream.
         *
         * @param buffer The bytes to write
         */
        public void write(byte[] buffer) {
            try {
                mmOutStream.write(buffer);
                // Share the sent message back to the UI Activity
                mHandler.obtainMessage(BluetoothChat.MESSAGE_WRITE, -1, -1, buffer)
                        .sendToTarget();
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
        }

        public void cancel() {
            try {
                mmSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
            }
        }
    }
}

6. Create the layout of the DeviceListActivity

Add a new xml file inside /res/layout folder, with name device_list.xml. We should have /layout/main_activity.xml file and paste the code below.

device_list.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical">

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/title_paired_devices"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:background="#666"
        android:paddingLeft="5dp"
        android:text="@string/title_paired_devices"
        android:textColor="#fff"
        android:visibility="gone" />

    <ListView
        android:id="@+id/paired_devices"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_weight="1"
        android:stackFromBottom="true" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/title_new_devices"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:background="#666"
        android:paddingLeft="5dp"
        android:text="@string/title_other_devices"
        android:textColor="#fff"
        android:visibility="gone" />

    <ListView
        android:id="@+id/new_devices"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_weight="2"
        android:stackFromBottom="true" />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/button_scan"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="@string/button_scan" />
</LinearLayout>

7. Create the source code of the DeviceListActivity

This Activity lists any paired devices and devices detected in the area after discovery. When a device is chosen by the user, the MAC address of the device is sent back to the parent Activity in the result Intent.

So, add a new Java class inside src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/ so that we are going to have the src/com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample/DeviceListActivity.java file and paste the code below.

DeviceListActivity.java

package com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample;

package com.javacodegeeks.androidBluetoothExample;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.content.BroadcastReceiver;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.content.IntentFilter;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.View.OnClickListener;
import android.view.Window;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemClickListener;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.ListView;
import android.widget.TextView;

import com.javacodegeeks.R;
import java.util.Set;

public class DeviceListActivity extends Activity {
    // Return Intent extra
    public static String EXTRA_DEVICE_ADDRESS = "device_address";
    // Member fields
    private BluetoothAdapter mBtAdapter;
    private ArrayAdapter mPairedDevicesArrayAdapter;
    private ArrayAdapter mNewDevicesArrayAdapter;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        // Setup the window
        requestWindowFeature(Window.FEATURE_INDETERMINATE_PROGRESS);
        setContentView(R.layout.device_list);
        // Set result CANCELED incase the user backs out
        setResult(Activity.RESULT_CANCELED);
        // Initialize the button to perform device discovery
        Button scanButton = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button_scan);
        scanButton.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
            public void onClick(View v) {
                doDiscovery();
                v.setVisibility(View.GONE);
            }
        });
        // Initialize array adapters. One for already paired devices and
        // one for newly discovered devices
        mPairedDevicesArrayAdapter = new ArrayAdapter(this, R.layout.device_name);
        mNewDevicesArrayAdapter = new ArrayAdapter(this, R.layout.device_name);
        // Find and set up the ListView for paired devices
        ListView pairedListView = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.paired_devices);
        pairedListView.setAdapter(mPairedDevicesArrayAdapter);
        pairedListView.setOnItemClickListener(mDeviceClickListener);
        // Find and set up the ListView for newly discovered devices
        ListView newDevicesListView = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.new_devices);
        newDevicesListView.setAdapter(mNewDevicesArrayAdapter);
        newDevicesListView.setOnItemClickListener(mDeviceClickListener);
        // Register for broadcasts when a device is discovered
        IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);
        this.registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter);
        // Register for broadcasts when discovery has finished
        filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED);
        this.registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter);
        // Get the local Bluetooth adapter
        mBtAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();
        // Get a set of currently paired devices
        Set pairedDevices = mBtAdapter.getBondedDevices();
        // If there are paired devices, add each one to the ArrayAdapter
        if (pairedDevices.size() > 0) {
            findViewById(R.id.title_paired_devices).setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
            for (BluetoothDevice device : pairedDevices) {
                mPairedDevicesArrayAdapter.add(device.getName() + "\n" + device.getAddress());
            }
        } else {
            String noDevices = getResources().getText(R.string.none_paired).toString();
            mPairedDevicesArrayAdapter.add(noDevices);
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        // Make sure we're not doing discovery anymore
        if (mBtAdapter != null) {
            mBtAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
        }
        // Unregister broadcast listeners
        this.unregisterReceiver(mReceiver);
    }

    /**
     * Start device discover with the BluetoothAdapter
     */
    private void doDiscovery() {
        // Indicate scanning in the title
        setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(true);
        setTitle(R.string.scanning);
        // Turn on sub-title for new devices
        findViewById(R.id.title_new_devices).setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
        // If we're already discovering, stop it
        if (mBtAdapter.isDiscovering()) {
            mBtAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
        }
        // Request discover from BluetoothAdapter
        mBtAdapter.startDiscovery();
    }

    // The on-click listener for all devices in the ListViews
    private OnItemClickListener mDeviceClickListener = new OnItemClickListener() {
        public void onItemClick(AdapterView av, View v, int arg2, long arg3) {
            // Cancel discovery because it's costly and we're about to connect
            mBtAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
            // Get the device MAC address, which is the last 17 chars in the View
            String info = ((TextView) v).getText().toString();
            String address = info.substring(info.length() - 17);
            // Create the result Intent and include the MAC address
            Intent intent = new Intent();
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DEVICE_ADDRESS, address);
            // Set result and finish this Activity
            setResult(Activity.RESULT_OK, intent);
            finish();
        }
    };
    
    // The BroadcastReceiver that listens for discovered devices and
    // changes the title when discovery is finished
    private final BroadcastReceiver mReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
        @Override
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
            String action = intent.getAction();
            // When discovery finds a device
            if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND.equals(action)) {
                // Get the BluetoothDevice object from the Intent
                BluetoothDevice device = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
                // If it's already paired, skip it, because it's been listed already
                if (device.getBondState() != BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDED) {
                    mNewDevicesArrayAdapter.add(device.getName() + "\n" + device.getAddress());
                }
                // When discovery is finished, change the Activity title
            } else if (BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED.equals(action)) {
                setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(false);
                setTitle(R.string.select_device);
                if (mNewDevicesArrayAdapter.getCount() == 0) {
                    String noDevices = getResources().getText(R.string.none_found).toString();
                    mNewDevicesArrayAdapter.add(noDevices);
                }
            }
        }
    };
}

8. AndroidManifest.xml

The AndroidManifest.xml of our project includes the BLUETOOTH permissions:

AndroidManifest.xml

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="com.javacodegeeks">

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN" />

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme">

        <activity
            android:name=".androidBluetoothExample.BluetoothChat"
            android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden"
            android:label="@string/app_name">

            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>

        </activity>

        <activity
            android:name=".androidBluetoothExample.DeviceListActivity"
            android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden"
            android:label="@string/select_device" />
    </application>
</manifest
>

9. build.gradle

We should add the AppCompat V7 support support library as well as RecyclerView V7 support support library the in our project. We can add them as dependencies to our application via build.gradle file.

build.gradle

apply plugin: 'com.android.application'

android {
    compileSdkVersion 24
    buildToolsVersion "24.0.0"

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.javacodegeeks"
        minSdkVersion 14
        targetSdkVersion 24
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0"
    }
    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
        }
    }
}

dependencies {
    compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
    testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
    compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:24.1.1'
    compile 'com.android.support:recyclerview-v7:24.1.1'
}

10. Build, compile and run

Tip
This example should run simultaneously on two different Android devices, in order for the Bluetooth chat to connect and run.

When we build, compile and run our project, the main BluetoothChat should look like this:

This is the first screen of the Bluetooth Connection example.

This is the first screen of the Bluetooth Connection example.

This is the BluetoothChat screen.

This is the BluetoothChat screen.

11. Download the Android Studio Project

This was an example of Android Bluetooth Connection – BluetoothChat Example.

Download
You can download the full source code of this example here: AndroidBluetoothExample.zip

12. References

(+2 rating, 2 votes)
7 Comments Views Tweet it!

Do you want to know how to develop your skillset to become a Java Rockstar?

Subscribe to our newsletter to start Rocking right now!

To get you started we give you our best selling eBooks for FREE!

 

1. JPA Mini Book

2. JVM Troubleshooting Guide

3. JUnit Tutorial for Unit Testing

4. Java Annotations Tutorial

5. Java Interview Questions

6. Spring Interview Questions

7. Android UI Design

 

and many more ....

 

Receive Java & Developer job alerts in your Area

 

7
Leave a Reply

avatar
7 Comment threads
0 Thread replies
0 Followers
 
Most reacted comment
Hottest comment thread
7 Comment authors
Aakash ChauhanGaganLennox BrownSwapnesh Agrawalvipul singh Recent comment authors
  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
Rubens
Guest
Rubens

Your example is fantastic. I am curious it is free to download and use. I want to use your source code in my program, is it free?

Thanks

Qli
Guest
Qli

Hi! Very nice code, but I have a question. Is it possible to connect for example 4+ phones or android devices like that? Would it be possible to have a chat with 5ppl who are in the same room?

vipul singh
Guest
vipul singh

in my case , it is not able to connect any nearby bluetooth device so how can i communicate

Swapnesh Agrawal
Guest
Swapnesh Agrawal

HI This is fantastic code But i just want to know that how to use BluetoothChatService as a background service so that i can use it in another activity also.

Lennox Brown
Guest
Lennox Brown

Excellent tutorial, I would like to learn how to integrate my android app to a bluetooth weighing scale

Gagan
Guest
Gagan

it show unable to connect

Aakash Chauhan
Guest
Aakash Chauhan

Hey!!! @Chryssa Aliferi i just downloaded your’s android bluetoothchat project it was really good but one more thing if you can provide me its documentation and overview that would be good
I want to submit in university