# Bagging and Boosting - Computer Science and Boosting Amit Srinet Dave Snyder Outline Bagging...

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Bagging and Boosting

Amit SrinetDave Snyder

Outline

BaggingDefinitionVariantsExamples

BoostingDefinitionHedge()AdaBoostExamples

Comparison

BaggingBootstrap ModelRandomly generate L set of cardinality N from the original set Z with replacement. Corrects the optimistic bias of R-Method

"Bootstrap Aggregation"Create Bootstrap samples of a training set using sampling with replacement.Each bootstrap sample is used to train a different component of base classifierClassification is done by plurality voting

Bagging

Regression is done by averagingWorks for unstable classifiers

Neural NetworksDecision Trees

Bagging

Kuncheva

Example

PR Tools:

>> A = gendatb(500,1);>> scatterd(A)>> W1 = baggingc(A,treec,100,[],[]);>> plotc(W1(:,1:2),'r')>> W2 = baggingc(A,treec,100,treec,[]);>> plotc(W2)

Generates 100 trees with default settings - stop based on purity metric, zero pruning

Example

Bagging: Decision Tree

Decision boundary produced by one treeTraining data

Example

Bagging: Decision Tree

Decision boundary produced by a third tree

Decision boundary produced by a second tree

Example

Bagging: Decision Tree

Final result from bagging all trees.Three trees and final boundary overlaid

Bagging: Neural Net

Example

Three neural nets generated with default settings [bpxnc]

Final output from bagging 10 neural nets

Why does bagging work ?

Main reason for error in learning is due to noise ,bias and variance.Noise is error by the target functionBias is where the algorithm can not learn the target.Variance comes from the sampling, and how it affects the learning algorithmDoes bagging minimizes these errors ?YesAveraging over bootstrap samples can reduce error from variance especially in case of unstable classifiers

Bagging

In fact Ensemble reduces varianceLet f(x) be the target value of x and h1 to hn be the set of base hypotheses and h-average be the prediction of base hypothesesE(h,x) = (f(x) h(x))^2 Squared Error

Ensemble Reduces variance

Let f(x) be the target value for x.Let h1, . . . , hn be the base hypotheses.Let h-avg be the average prediction of h1, . . . , hn.Let E(h, x) = (f(x) h(x))2Is there any relation between h-avg and variance?

yes

E(h-avg,x) = (i = 1 to n)E(hi ,x)/n(i = 1 to n) (hi(x) h-avg(x))^2/n

That is squared error of the average prediction equals the average squared error of the base hypotheses minus the variance of the base hypotheses.

Reference 1-End of the slideshow.

Bagging - Variants

Random ForestsA variant of bagging proposed by BreimanIts a general class of ensemble building methods using a decision tree as base classifier.

Classifier consisting of a collection of tree-structure classifiers.Each tree grown with a random vector Vk where k = 1,L are independent and statistically distributed.Each tree cast a unit vote for the most popular class at input x.

Boosting

A technique for combining multiple base classifiers whose combined performance is significantly better than that of any of the base classifiers. Sequential training of weak learners

Each base classifier is trained on data that is weighted based on the performance of the previous classifier

Each classifier votes to obtain a final outcome

Boosting

Duda, Hart, and Stork

Boosting - Hedge()

Boosting follows the model of online algorithm.Algorithm allocates weights to a set of strategies and used to predict the outcome of the certain eventAfter each prediction the weights are redistributed. Correct strategies receive more weights while the weights of the incorrect strategies are reduced further.Relation with Boosting algorithm.Strategies corresponds to classifiers in the ensemble and the event will correspond to assigning a label to sample drawn randomly from the input.

Boosting

Kuncheva

Boosting - AdaBoost

Start with equally weighted data, apply first classifierIncrease weights on misclassified data, apply second classifierContinue emphasizing misclassified data to subsequent classifiers until all classifiers have been trained

Boosting

Kuncheva

Boosting - AdaBoost

Training error: Kuncheva 7.2.4In practice overfitting rarely occurs (Bishop)

Bishop

Margin Theory

Testing error continues to decreaseAda-boost brought forward margin theoryMargin for an object is related to certainty of its classification.Positive and large margin correct classificationNegative margin - Incorrect ClassificationVery small margin Uncertainty in classification

Similar classifier can give different label to an input.Margin of object x is calculated using the degree of support.

Where

Freund and schapire proved upper bounds on the testing error that depend on the margin Let H a finite space of base classifiers.For delta > 0 and theta > 0 with probability at least 1 delta over the random choice of the training set Z, any classifier ensemble D {D1, . . . ,DL} H combined by the weighted average satisfies

P(error ) = probability that the ensemble will make an error in labeling x drawn randomly from the distribution of the problemP(training margin < theta ) is the probabilty that the margin for a randomly drawn data point from a randomly drawn training set does not exceed theta

Thus the main idea for boosting is to approximate the target by approximating the weight of the function.These weights can be seen as the min-max strategy of the game. Thus we can apply the notion of game theory for ada-boost.This idea has been discussed in the paper of freund and schpaire.

Experiment

PR Tools:

>> A = gendatb(500, 1);>> [W,V,ALF] = adaboostc(A,qdc,20,[],1);>> scatterd(A)>> plotc(W)

Uses Quadratic Bayes Normal Classifier with default settings, 20 iterations.

Example

AdaBoost: QDC

Each QDC classification boundary (black), Final output (red)

Final output of AdaBoost with 20 QDC classifiers

Experiments

AdaBoost: Decision Tree

Final output of AdaBoost with 20 decision trees

AdaBoost using 20 decision trees with default settings

Experiments

AdaBoost: Neural Net

AdaBoost using 20 neural nets [bpxnc] default settings

Final output of AdaBoost with 20 neural nets

Bagging & BoostingComparing bagging and boosting:

Kuncheva

References

1 - A. Krogh and J. Vedelsby (1995).Neural network ensembles, cross validation and activelearning. In D. S. Touretzky G. Tesauro and T. K. Leen, eds., Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 231-238, MIT Press.

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