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About Joel Patrick Llosa

Joel Patrick Llosa
I graduated from Silliman University in Dumaguete City with a degree in Bachelor of Science in Business Computer Application. I have contributed to many Java related projects at University of Southampton (iSolutions), Predictive Technologies, LLC., Confluence Service, North Concepts, Inc., NEC Telecom Software Philippines, Inc., and NEC Technologies Philippines, Inc. You can also find me in Upwork freelancing as a Java Developer.

Spring Boot Security Example

Hi Spring Boot fans. Today, we will follow how Nick added Spring Boot Security to his web application. We will see how Nick protects his resources by adding Spring Boot Security. Spring Security provides a wide-range of security services services for Java EE-based enterprise software applications. The two main areas of application security that Spring Security targets are “authentication and “authorization or access-control”.

1. Tools

  1. Apache Maven
  2. Mars Eclipse
  3. Spring Boot
  4. Spring Boot Security
  5. Spring Security Reference

2. Assumptions

Nick knows his way around Eclipse. He is familiar with Maven and has done a fair amount of coding in his lifetime. His project has been created using Eclipse Mars so all instructions are based on this IDE.

3. Project Object Model

The first thing he did was to add Spring Boot Security to the classpath.

pom.xml

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>com.javacodegeeks.example</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-security</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	...
	<dependencies>
                ...
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
		</dependency>
                ...
	</dependencies>
	...
</project>

The ellipses has been added for brevity. Web applications are secured by default if Spring Security is on the classpath. The basic features Nick got by default in his web application are:

  • A UserDetailService bean with in-memory store.
  • Form-based login for the entire application. (authentication)

Spring Boot Security automatically secures all HTTP endpoints with HTTP Basic security. But it can be customized.

4. Endpoints

Nick’s app is based on Spring MVC. This is how he set up his view controllers to expose his templates.

ControllerConfig.java

package com.javacodegeeks.example;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ViewControllerRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurer;

@Configuration
public class ControllerConfig implements WebMvcConfigurer {

    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/enigma").setViewName("enigma");
        registry.addViewController("/login").setViewName("login");
    }

}

The above code shows the endpoints of Nick’s web app. He will be securing the /enigma endpoint because there are top secret messages in that endpoint. Only authorized personnel are allowed to access it. Nick ran the application (Run As -> Java Application) and accessed it on localhost. This is what he saw:

spring boot security example

localhost:8080

5. Secured Endpoint

To prevent unauthorized users from accessing the /enigma endpoint, Nick created the code below. The code below forces the user to sign in when hitting /enigma, otherwise, the said endpoint can be accessed by anybody.

MainSecurityConfig.java

package com.javacodegeeks.example;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.provisioning.InMemoryUserDetailsManager;

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class MainSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers("/", "/js/**", "/css/**").permitAll()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .formLogin()
                .loginPage("/login")
                .permitAll()
                .and()
            .logout()
                .permitAll();
    }

    @Bean
    @Override
    public UserDetailsService userDetailsService() {
		UserDetails user =
             User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder()
                .username("007")
                .password("JamesBond")
                .roles("USER")
                .build();

        return new InMemoryUserDetailsManager(user);
    }
}

The above code is the meat of Nick’s web security. His class is annotated with @EnableWebSecurity to enable Spring Boot Security’s web security support and provide the Spring MVC integration. He also extended WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter and has overriden some of its methods to customize the web security configuration.

The configure method defines which URL paths are secured and which are not. The above code secures the /enigma endpoint as it was his task was to do so. All other paths do not need any authentication.

Nick provided a custom login page as specified by .loginPage("/login"). Recall that this was mapped in ControllerConfig.java. So users accessing /engima will have to login before they are able to view the web page.

The userDetailsService method sets up an in-memory user store with a single user. The username is 007 and the password is JamesBond with a role of “USER” (authorization or access-control). The method withDefaultPasswordEncoder is unsafe for production use because the password is compiled into the source code and is then included in memory at the time of creation. Which means it can be recovered as a plain text password making it unsafe. Nick is using it because this is just a fantasy example. For production purposes, ensure the password is encoded externally.

Below is how the login screen looks like.

spring boot security example

Login Form

6. Authenticated Access

If the user supplied the correct username and password, he shall see the top secret message as shown below.

spring boot security example

/engima endpoint

7. Spring Boot Security Summary

Let’s summarize what Nick did in order to add Spring Boot Security to his web app. To secure his web app, he added Spring Boot Security to the classpath. Once it was in the classpath, Spring Boot Security was enabled by default. He then customized the security by extending WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter and added his own configure and userDetailsService implementation. That’s all there is to it and Nick is a happy camper.

8. Download the Source Code

This is an example about Spring Boot Security.

Download
You can download the source code of this example here: spring-boot-security.zip
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