Software Development

Fix MySQL Key Length Error

Fixing the MySQL Error ‘Specified key was too long’ is essential for developers working with MySQL databases. This error occurs when trying to create indexes on columns with excessive lengths. Let us learn how to fix MySQL key length error.

1. Introduction

MySQL is a popular open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) known for its scalability, reliability, and ease of use. It plays a crucial role in various applications across different industries. Let’s explore some of its key use cases:

  • Web Applications: MySQL is the go-to choice for powering web applications, from simple blogs to complex e-commerce platforms. Its ability to handle concurrent connections, manage large datasets, and provide efficient data retrieval makes it ideal for serving dynamic web content.
  • Content Management Systems (CMS): CMS platforms like WordPress, Joomla, and Drupal rely on MySQL to store and retrieve content, user data, and configurations. Its robust data management capabilities ensure smooth content publishing and management.
  • E-commerce Systems: Online stores depend on MySQL to manage product catalogs, user profiles, order histories, and transaction data. It enables seamless and secure e-commerce operations.
  • Data Warehousing: MySQL is used for data warehousing to store, organize, and analyze vast amounts of structured data. Its support for indexing and complex queries aids in business intelligence and reporting.
  • Mobile Applications: Mobile apps often utilize MySQL to store user data, settings, and application logs. Its compatibility with various programming languages and frameworks makes it a versatile choice for mobile app development.
  • Online Forums and Social Networks: Online communities and social networks like Facebook and phpBB rely on MySQL to manage user profiles, discussions, and interactions. It ensures fast and efficient data retrieval in high-traffic environments.

MySQL’s versatility and strong community support make it a trusted database solution for a wide range of applications. Whether you’re building a small website or a large-scale enterprise system, MySQL can effectively handle your data management needs.

2. Understanding the “Specified key was too long” Error in MySQL

The “Specified key was too long” error in MySQL typically occurs when you’re working with character column types (e.g., VARCHAR, CHAR, TEXT) and trying to create an index on one or more of these columns. This error is related to the maximum index length allowed for your storage engine and character set.

2.1 Character Set and Collation

In MySQL, character columns have a character set and collation associated with them. The character set defines the set of characters that can be used, and the collation defines the sorting and comparison rules for those characters.

2.2 Index Length Limitation

Different storage engines have limitations on the maximum index length, which is essentially the maximum number of characters that can be used in an indexed column(s). InnoDB, for example, has a default index length limit of 767 bytes, which can be lower for certain character sets.

2.3 Error Trigger

When you try to create an index on a column or a combination of columns that, when combined, exceed the maximum index length, MySQL throws the “Specified key was too long” error. This means the combined length of characters in the indexed columns is too large for the chosen storage engine and character set.

2.4 Solutions for MySQL Key Length Issue

To fix this error, you have several options:

  • Reduce Column Length: If possible, reduce the length of the column(s) involved in the index. You may not need all the characters in the column for indexing purposes.
  • Change Character Set/Collation: Consider changing the character set or collation for the column(s) to one that uses fewer bytes per character. This can increase the number of characters allowed in the index.
  • Use a Different Storage Engine: InnoDB has certain limitations on index length, but other storage engines like MyISAM have different limits. Switching to a different storage engine might resolve the issue.
  • Partial Indexing: If you can’t change the column length or character set, you can create a partial index by indexing only a portion of the column data. This can be useful if you only need to index a specific prefix of the column’s value.
  • Use a Hash Column: Another workaround is to create a separate column where you store a hash of the original column’s value. You can then create an index on the hash column.
  • Upgrade MySQL: Sometimes, upgrading MySQL to a newer version may increase the maximum index length limit, but this depends on the MySQL version and storage engine.

3. Using Different Character Sets in MySQL

MySQL, a popular relational database management system, provides the flexibility to work with different character sets and collations. Understanding how to use various character sets is crucial when dealing with text and string data in your database. When working with different character sets in MySQL:

  • Choose character sets and collations that match your application’s language and data requirements.
  • Maintain consistency within your database design to avoid unexpected behavior.
  • Keep in mind that changing character sets on existing data may require data conversion and could impact performance.

3.1 Character Sets in MySQL

MySQL supports a wide range of character sets and collations. A character set defines the set of characters that can be stored in a column, while a collation defines the rules for sorting and comparing those characters.

3.2 Specifying Character Sets for Columns

You can use a different character set for a specific column when creating a table like this:


CREATE TABLE my_table (
	name VARCHAR(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci

In this example, we’ve used the utf8mb4 character set, a popular choice for handling a wide range of Unicode characters. The utf8mb4_unicode_ci collation provides case-insensitive sorting and comparison.

3.3 Altering Table Character Set

If you need to change the character set and collation of an existing table column, you can do so with an ALTER TABLE statement:


ALTER TABLE my_table
    MODIFY COLUMN name VARCHAR(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci;

utf8mb4_unicode_ci is case-insensitive and accent-insensitive.

3.4 Database-Level Character Set

To set a default character set and collation for an entire database, specify it during the database creation:


        CHARACTER SET utf8mb4
        COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci;

utf8mb4_unicode_ci is case-insensitive and accent-insensitive.

3.5 Server-Level Character Set

You can also set a server-level character set and collation in the MySQL server configuration file (my.cnf) under the [mysqld] section:



utf8mb4_unicode_ci is case-insensitive and accent-insensitive. This configuration applies the specified character set and collation as the default for all databases and tables on the MySQL server.

4. Modifying Index Length in MySQL

MySQL allows you to create indexes on columns to improve query performance. However, there are situations where you might need to modify the index length, especially when dealing with large datasets or encountering “Specified key was too long” errors. When modifying index length:

  • Back up your data before making significant changes.
  • Consider the impact on application performance and downtime.
  • Test changes in a non-production environment first.
  • Be aware of potential data truncation if you shorten columns.

4.1 Reasons for Modifying Index Length

There are several reasons why you might need to modify the index length:

  • Specified key was a too-long error: This error occurs when creating an index on columns with excessive lengths, exceeding the storage engine’s limit.
  • Performance optimization: In some cases, you may want to optimize index length to reduce storage requirements and improve query performance.
  • Data type change: If you change the data type of a column, it can impact the index length, requiring adjustments.

To modify the index length in MySQL, consider the following methods:

4.1.1 Reducing Column Length

If the column length is causing an index length issue, you can reduce the length of the column:


ALTER TABLE my_table
    MODIFY COLUMN my_column VARCHAR(100);

4.1.2 Changing Storage Engine

Different storage engines have varying index length limitations. You can switch to a storage engine with higher index length limits if needed. For example:


ALTER TABLE my_table
    ENGINE = InnoDB;

4.1.3 Using Prefix Indexes

If you don’t need to index the entire column, you can use prefix indexes to index only a portion of the column’s data:


CREATE INDEX idx_prefix ON my_table (my_column(50));

4.1.4 Dropping and Recreating Indexes

In some cases, you may need to drop and recreate indexes to change their length. Be cautious when doing this in a production environment:


ALTER TABLE my_table
    DROP INDEX idx_old;
CREATE INDEX idx_new ON my_table (my_column(100));

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, the ability to adjust column or index definitions in MySQL is a fundamental aspect of database management. Whether it’s accommodating changes in data types, and constraints, or optimizing query performance with well-crafted indexes, these modifications are essential for keeping your database agile and responsive to evolving application needs. However, it’s crucial to approach these adjustments with caution, ensuring data integrity, maintaining backups, and testing changes in a controlled environment to minimize any potential risks or disruptions to your application. By mastering the art of adapting column and index definitions, you empower your database to grow and adapt alongside your evolving business requirements, ultimately contributing to the efficiency and reliability of your MySQL-powered applications.

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