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About Jesus Boadas

Jesus Boadas
I'm a self taught programmer, I began programming back in 1991 using an IBM A10 mainframe with Pascal an Assembler IBM 360/70 emulator and Turbo C on a X86 PC, since that I work for the banking industry with emerging technologies like Fox Pro, Visual Fox Pro, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Borland C++, lately I moved out to the Airline industry, leading designing and programming in-house web applications with Flex, Actionscript, PHP, Python and Rails and in the last 7 years I focused all my work in Java, working on Linux servers using GlassFish, TomCat, Apache and MySql.

Apache Tomcat Best Practices

Best practices are procedures that are accepted or prescribed as being correct or most effective. The Apache Tomcat software is an open source implementation of the Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language and Java WebSocket technologies.

1. The tools

  • Java JDK
  • Apache Tomcat

2. Introduction

In this example we are going to illustrate best practices using the Apache Tomcat Servlet container. We are going to install the Tomcat server to illustrate these practices.

3. Prerequisites

  • JDK installed

4. Download Tomcat

Go to the page https://tomcat.apache.org/download-80.cgi.

Download the tomcat server as a zip compressed file for windows.

1 Download Tomcat for Windows

1 Download Tomcat for Windows

5. Tomcat Installation

5.1 Uncompress Apache Tomcat

Choose an installation directory and uncompress the Tomcat server in its own directory.

2 Uncompress Tomcat

2 Uncompress Tomcat

5.2 Install the Tomcat service

Open the Windows terminal and go to the Tomcat Installation bin directory.

Tomcat installation directory

C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.15\bin>

Install the service with the following command:

Install Tomcat service

C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.15\bin>service install

You should get an output similar to this:

install Tomcat output

Installing the service 'Tomcat8' ...
Using CATALINA_HOME:    "C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.15"
Using CATALINA_BASE:    "C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.15"
Using JAVA_HOME:        "C:\Java\jdk1.8.0_40"
Using JRE_HOME:         "C:\Java\jre1.8.0_40"
Using JVM:              "C:\Java\jre1.8.0_40\bin\client\jvm.dll"
The service 'Tomcat8' has been installed.

5.3 Start the Tomcat service

Start the service with the following command:

Start tomcat output

C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.15\bin>sc start Tomcat8

You should get an output similar to the following:

console

SERVICE_NAME: Tomcat8
        TYPE               : 10  WIN32_OWN_PROCESS
        STATUS             : 2  START_PENDING
                                (NOT_STOPPABLE, NOT_PAUSABLE, IGNORES_SHUTDOWN)
        WIN32_OUTPUT_CODE  : 0  (0x0)
        SERVICE_OUTPUT_CODE: 0  (0x0)
        CHECK-POINT        : 0x0
        START-INDICATOR    : 0x7d0
        PID                : 5552
        MARKS              :

5.4 Check that tomcat is running

Open the browser in the URL: http://localhost:8080

And you should see the Tomcat Welcome screen.

3 Tomcat Welcome

3 Tomcat Welcome

6. Install Tomcat as a Service

If you are going to use Tomcat in a server is often useful to install it as a service. Services start with the operative system and also your Tomcat service starts and stops with the machine shutdown & restart procedure.

Go to the Tomcat bin folder. Type the command:

Install service

C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.27\bin>service install

This command installs the Tomcat service in Windows. You should get the following output

Install service output

Installing the service 'Tomcat8' ...
Using CATALINA_HOME:    "C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.27"
Using CATALINA_BASE:    "C:\Java\Apache Tomcat 8.0.27"
Using JAVA_HOME:        "C:\Java\jdk1.8.0_40"
Using JRE_HOME:         "C:\Java\jdk1.8.0_40\jre"
Using JVM:              "C:\Java\jdk1.8.0_40\jre\bin\server\jvm.dll"
The service 'Tomcat8' has been installed.

7. Remove everything from webapps

On a production server the webapps that come with Tomcat are not needed, so often it’s useful to remove all of them. Keep in mind that this also removes the manager and you are not longer allowed to access your tomcat server configuration from a remorte server. Instead you can use SSH and configure your Tomcat Server remotely from the command line.

4-tomcat-webapps

4-tomcat-webapps

8. Default Servlet

Make sure the default servlet is configured not to serve index pages when a welcome file is not present. In TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml

web.xml

 <servlet>
   <servlet-name>default</servlet-name>
   <servlet-class>org.apache.catalina.servlets.DefaultServlet</servlet-class>
   <init-param>
     <param-name>debug</param-name>
     <param-value>0</param-value>
   </init-param>
   <init-param>
     <param-name>listings</param-name>
     <param-value>false</param-value>  <!-- make sure this is false -->
   </init-param>
   <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
 </servlet>

9. Replace default error page

Replace default error page by adding the following into CATALINA_HOME/conf/web.xml. The default error page shows a full stack trace which is not recommended on a production web server.
A well configured web application should override the default error page.

xml

<error-page>
  <exception-type>java.lang.Throwable</exception-type>
  <location>/my-error.page.jsp</location>
</error-page>

10. Enable SSL

SSL, or Secure Socket Layer, is a technology which allows web browsers and web servers to communicate over a secured connection. This means that the data being sent is encrypted by one side, transmitted, and then decrypted by the other side before processing. This is a two-way process, meaning that both server AND the browser encrypt all traffic before sending out data.

11. Secure the manager application

If you are going to use the manager application, you should secure it with a user and a password for the appropriate role.

Edit the file
TOMCAT_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml

Tomcat Roles

<role rolename="manager"/>
<user username="darren" password="ReallyComplexPassword" roles="manager"/>

12. Use SSL in the manager application

When you access the password-protected manager webapp, the password you enter will be sent over the network in plain text. Using an SSL connection instead, you can transport the password securely.
After configuring an SSL Connector in server.xml, add the following to TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/manager/WEB-INF/web.xml inside of the security-constraint tag.

security-constraint

<user-data-constraint>
  <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee>
</user-data-constraint>

13. Use an individual log file for each web application

By default additional webapp log entries are added to TOMCAT_HOME/logs/catalina.YYYY-MM-DD.log and System.out/System.err are redirected to TOMCAT_HOME/logs/catalina.out. To place webapp log entries in individual log files create a logging.properties file similar to the following within TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/APP_NAME/WEB-INF/classes (change the APP_NAME value to create a unique file for each webapp).

Logs

 handlers = org.apache.juli.FileHandler, java.util.logging.ConsoleHandler
 org.apache.juli.FileHandler.level = ALL
 org.apache.juli.FileHandler.directory = ${catalina.base}/logs
 org.apache.juli.FileHandler.prefix = APP_NAME.

14. Cleartext Passwords in server.xml

When configuring a resource, such as a JDBC pool, it is necessary to include clear text username and password in TOMCAT_HOME/conf/server.xml. Best practices advice us to never store clear text passwords, but it is very difficult to avoid here.

In the case of a JDBC pool what you can do is:

  • make sure the database user only has access to the databases and tables they need.
  • make sure the raw database files are only accessible to the user running the database services (e.g. mysql/postgresql user)
  • make sure the Tomcat configuration files are only accessible to the tomcat user.

15. Conclusion

As you have seen these best practices are useful for your server and help you avoid some common mistakes and future problems with your tomcat server.

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