Home » Enterprise Java » Quartz » Java Quartz Scheduler vs Java Timer Example

About Mary Zheng

Mary Zheng
Mary has graduated from Mechanical Engineering department at ShangHai JiaoTong University. She also holds a Master degree in Computer Science from Webster University. During her studies she has been involved with a large number of projects ranging from programming and software engineering. She works as a senior Software Engineer in the telecommunications sector where she acts as a leader and works with others to design, implement, and monitor the software solution.

Java Quartz Scheduler vs Java Timer Example

1.Introduction

This example builds two java scheduler applications: one utilizes Quartz scheduler and the other uses java built-in Timer library.

Quartz – an open source library, enables enterprise to schedule a job/task at a specific date and time.  It provides operations to scheduling/unscheduling jobs, starting/stopping/pausing the scheduler.

JDK built-in Timer library enables an application to run the task in a background thread. Tasks may be scheduled for one-time execution, or for repeated execution at regular intervals. It provides cancel and purge methods to terminate the timer and remove all cancelled tasks from this timer’s queue.

2. The Business Task

The business task is a task that business requires to run according to the schedule. It can be scheduled via Quartz scheduler or JDK Timer library, so create it outside the scheduler package. For demonstration purpose, it prints out the current thread name.

MyTask

package jcg.demo.mywork;

/**
 * This class performs the task based the business requirements
 * 
 * @author Mary.Zheng
 *
 */
public class MyTask {

	/**
	 * It should handle any runtime exception if the application should continue
	 * when encounters a exception, otherwise the application will stop
	 */
	public void perform() {
		System.out.println("\tMyTask performed by thread: " + Thread.currentThread().getName());
	}
}

3. Quartz Scheduler Example

This example demonstrates how to create a scheduler application with Quartz. This example will fire off a simple job that invokes business related task every minute. The program will perform the following actions:

  • Start up the Quartz Scheduler
  • Schedule a simple job to run every minute

3.1 Quartz dependency

Add Quartz dependency to maven pom.xml:

pom.xml

<dependency>
		<groupId>org.quartz-scheduler</groupId>
		<artifactId>quartz</artifactId>
		<version>2.2.1</version>
</dependency>

3.2 Quartz job

Create a class which implements org.quartz.Job interface

QuartzJob

package jcg.demo.scheduler.quartz2;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;

import org.quartz.Job;
import org.quartz.JobExecutionContext;
import org.quartz.JobExecutionException;

import jcg.demo.mywork.MyTask;

/**
 * This class implements Quartz Job interface, anything you wish to be executed
 * by the Quartz Scheduler should be here. It should invokes business class to
 * perform task.
 * 
 * @author Mary.Zheng
 *
 */
public class QuartzJob implements Job {

	@Override
	public void execute(JobExecutionContext context) throws JobExecutionException {
		LocalDateTime localTime = LocalDateTime.now();
		System.out.println("Run QuartzJob at " + localTime.toString());

		MyTask mytask = new MyTask();
		mytask.perform();
	}

}
  • line 19: Create QuartzJob class which implements org.quartz.Job
  • line 21 – 28: Override the execute method to include MyTask created at step 2. This is the connection point to tie the business task to Quartz Job library

3.3 Quartz scheduler application

Quartz supports several scheduler trigger. The example below demonstrates how to schedule a job to run the task every minute. It includes five steps as below:

  • Initialize a scheduler instance from Quartz via StdSchedulerFactory()
  • Start the scheduler instance with Quartz API start()
  • Create a scheduler trigger from the Quartz TriggerBuilder with the SimpleScheduleBuilder with 1 minute intervals
  • Build a JobDetail instance from Quartz JobBuilder for the QuartzJob created at step 3.2
  • Schedule a job with the someJobDetail and trigger created at above two steps

QuartzSchedulerApp

package jcg.demo.scheduler.quartz2;

import org.quartz.CronScheduleBuilder;
import org.quartz.JobBuilder;
import org.quartz.JobDetail;
import org.quartz.Scheduler;
import org.quartz.SimpleScheduleBuilder;
import org.quartz.Trigger;
import org.quartz.TriggerBuilder;
import org.quartz.impl.StdSchedulerFactory;

/**
 * This application schedule a job to run every minute
 * 
 * @author Mary.Zheng
 *
 */
public class QuartzSchedulerApp {

	private static final String TRIGGER_NAME = "MyTriggerName";
	private static final String GROUP = "simple_Group";
	private static final String JOB_NAME = "someJob";
	private static Scheduler scheduler;

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		System.out.println(" QuartzSchedulerApp main thread: " + Thread.currentThread().getName());

		scheduler = new StdSchedulerFactory().getScheduler();
		scheduler.start();

		Trigger trigger =  buildSimpleSchedulerTrigger();
		// buildCronSchedulerTrigger();// for cron job trigger
		scheduleJob(trigger);

	}

	private static void scheduleJob(Trigger trigger) throws Exception {

		JobDetail someJobDetail = JobBuilder.newJob(QuartzJob.class).withIdentity(JOB_NAME, GROUP).build();

		scheduler.scheduleJob(someJobDetail, trigger);

	}

	private static Trigger buildSimpleSchedulerTrigger() {

		int INTERVAL_SECONDS = 60;

		Trigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.newTrigger().withIdentity(TRIGGER_NAME, GROUP)
				.withSchedule(
						SimpleScheduleBuilder.simpleSchedule().withIntervalInSeconds(INTERVAL_SECONDS).repeatForever())
				.build();
		return trigger;
	}

	private static Trigger buildCronSchedulerTrigger() {
		String CRON_EXPRESSION = "0 * * * * ?";
		Trigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.newTrigger().withIdentity(TRIGGER_NAME, GROUP)
				.withSchedule(CronScheduleBuilder.cronSchedule(CRON_EXPRESSION)).build();

		return trigger;
	}
}
  • line 28: Initialize a scheduler via the org.quartz.impl.StdSchedulerFactory
  • line 29: Start the scheduler instance
  • line 31: Build a simple scheduler trigger based on the time intervals
  • line 33: Call private schedulerJob method with trigger (created at line 31)
  • line 39: Build a JobDetail instance from org.quartz.JobBuilder. This is the connection point which connects the Quartz Job to the QuartzJob created at step 3.2
  • line 41: Invoke the scheduler’s scheduleJob method. This is another connection point which connects the Quartz scheduler (created at line 28) to the someJobDetail(created at line 41) and the trigger (created at line 31) all together
  • line 49-52: Build a scheduler trigger from org.quartz.TriggerBuilder based on SimpleScheduleBuilder with IntervalInSeconds() to run at every 60 seconds
  • line 58-59: Build a scheduler trigger from org.quartz.TriggerBuilder based on CronSchedulBuilder with Cron expression to run every minute at 0 second

3.4 Quartz scheduler execution

Run the Quartz scheduler application

Output

QuartzSchedulerApp main thread: main
Run QuartzJob at 2017-11-20T16:13:33.811
	MyTask performed by thread: DefaultQuartzScheduler_Worker-1
Run QuartzJob at 2017-11-20T16:14:33.773
	MyTask performed by thread: DefaultQuartzScheduler_Worker-2
Run QuartzJob at 2017-11-20T16:15:33.774
	MyTask performed by thread: DefaultQuartzScheduler_Worker-3

As you see, the job repeatedly runs every minute with different thread.

4. JDK Timer Example

This example demonstrates how to create a java application with JDK Timer library. This example will fire off a simple job that invokes business related task every minute. It only needs two steps to schedule a job.

4.1 JDK Timer task

Create a class which extends from the java.util.TimerTask

TimerJob

package jcg.demo.scheduler.jdktimer;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.util.TimerTask;

import jcg.demo.mywork.MyTask;

/**
 * This class extends from JDK TimerTask, anything you wish to be executed by
 * the Timer should be here it should invokes business class to perform task.
 * 
 * @author Mary.Zheng
 *
 */
public class TimerJob extends TimerTask {

	@Override
	public void run() {
		LocalDateTime localTime = LocalDateTime.now();
		System.out.println("Run TimerJob at " + localTime.toString());

		MyTask task = new MyTask();
		task.perform();

	}
}
  • line 15: we create TimerJob extends from java.util.TimerTask
  • line 18-25: we override the run method which includes the MyTask created at step 2. It’s the connection point to tie the TimerJob to the business task

4.2 JDK Timer application

JDK Timer has six build-in schedule methods. The example below demonstrates how to schedule a timer to run the task every minute after 1 second delay from the beginning.

TimerApp

package jcg.demo.scheduler.jdktimer;

import java.util.Timer;
import java.util.TimerTask;

/**
 * This application schedule a job to run every minute after 1 second delay.
 * 
 * @author Mary.Zheng
 *
 */
public class TimerApp {
	private static final int PERIOD_MS = 60000;
	private static final int DELAY_MS = 1000;

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		System.out.println(" TimerSchedulerApp main thread: " + Thread.currentThread().getName());

		TimerTask task = new TimerJob();

		Timer timer = new Timer();
		timer.schedule(task, DELAY_MS, PERIOD_MS);

	}
}
  • line 19: we create new TimerJob instance created at step 4.1
  • line 21: we create new java.util.Timer instance
  • line 22: we invoke the timer instance’s schedule method with the TimerTask (created at line 19) with 1 second delay and 60 seconds intervals

4.3 JDK Timer execution

Run the JDK Timer application

Output

TimerApp main thread: main
Run TimerJob at 2017-11-20T16:19:02.426
	MyTask performed by thread: Timer-0
Run TimerJob at 2017-11-20T16:20:02.353
	MyTask performed by thread: Timer-0
Run TimerJob at 2017-11-20T16:21:02.354
	MyTask performed by thread: Timer-0
Run TimerJob at 2017-11-20T16:22:02.354
	MyTask performed by thread: Timer-0
Run TimerJob at 2017-11-20T16:23:02.355
	MyTask performed by thread: Timer-0

As you see, the job repeatedly runs every minute with same thread. It’s not ideal for an application which has lots of scheduled jobs.

5. Comparison

As you can see via the demo projects, here are the pros and cons for each of them. The developer should weigh the options to find the option which best suits the business’s needs.

5.1 Quartz Scheduler

Pros:

  • has several built-in triggers which most businesses need
  • can be extended to meet more complex schedule requirement
  • support concurrent threads

Cons:

  • not easy to use

5.2 JDK Timer

Pros:

  • very easy to use
  • has six build-in schedule methods to allow job executed one time, or repeatedly with fixed rate, or with interval delay, etc

Cons:

  • cannot schedule with Cron job expression
  • cannot extend for other schedule options

6. Conclusion

Quartz scheduler is suited for an enterprise scheduler application. JDK timer is suited for a simple scheduler job. There are other scheduler libraries available as well. A developer should weigh the options to find the best way to satisfy the business’s requirements.

7. Download the Source Code

This example builds two java scheduler applications: one utilizes Quartz scheduler and the other uses java built-in Timer library.

Download
You can download the full source code of this example here: Java Quartz Scheduler vs Java Timer Example
(No Ratings Yet)
Start the discussion Views Tweet it!

Do you want to know how to develop your skillset to become a Java Rockstar?

Subscribe to our newsletter to start Rocking right now!

To get you started we give you our best selling eBooks for FREE!

 

1. JPA Mini Book

2. JVM Troubleshooting Guide

3. JUnit Tutorial for Unit Testing

4. Java Annotations Tutorial

5. Java Interview Questions

6. Spring Interview Questions

7. Android UI Design

 

and many more ....

 

Receive Java & Developer job alerts in your Area

 

Leave a Reply

avatar
  Subscribe  
Notify of