Spring boot Hello World Application Tutorial

Spring is a comprehensive, open-source framework for Java development, simplifying and accelerating the creation of enterprise-level applications. Known for its modular design, Spring facilitates the development of loosely coupled and easily testable components, fostering a more maintainable and scalable codebase. This framework offers a broad range of features, including dependency injection, aspect-oriented programming, and robust support for data access and transaction management. Let us delve into a practical approach to understanding the Spring boot tutorial with the Hello World application.

1. Introduction

Spring is a powerful, open-source framework for Java development that provides a comprehensive infrastructure for building enterprise-level applications. It offers a set of cohesive modules addressing various concerns, such as data access, security, and messaging, fostering a modular and scalable approach to software development.

1.1 Key Features of Spring

  • Dependency Injection (DI): Spring promotes the use of Inversion of Control (IoC) through DI, reducing coupling between components and enhancing testability.
  • Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP): AOP allows developers to separate cross-cutting concerns, such as logging and security, from the main business logic, improving code modularity.
  • Data Access: Spring provides robust support for data access, including JDBC abstraction, ORM framework integration (e.g., Hibernate), and declarative transaction management.
  • Model-View-Controller (MVC): The Spring MVC framework simplifies the development of web applications by providing a flexible and customizable MVC architecture.
  • Security: Spring Security offers a comprehensive framework for authentication, authorization, and protection against common security vulnerabilities.
  • Transaction Management: Spring simplifies transaction management across various transactional resources, ensuring data consistency and reliability.
  • Enterprise Integration: Spring facilitates seamless integration with enterprise technologies, such as JMS, JCA, and various messaging systems.
  • Testing Support: Spring’s design encourages the creation of unit-testable and mockable components, enhancing the overall testability of applications.

1.2 Advantages of Using Spring

  • Modularity: Spring’s modular design promotes the development of loosely coupled and highly cohesive components, fostering maintainability and scalability.
  • Simplified Development: Spring’s abstraction over complex technologies and boilerplate code simplifies development, enabling developers to focus on business logic.
  • Flexibility: Spring’s diverse set of modules allows developers to choose the components they need, promoting flexibility in application architecture.
  • Community Support: Spring has a large and active community, providing a wealth of resources, documentation, and support for developers.
  • Integration Capabilities: Spring seamlessly integrates with various technologies, making it suitable for building diverse applications, from traditional monoliths to modern microservices.
  • Enterprise-Ready: Spring is widely adopted in enterprise environments due to its robust features, scalability, and support for building large-scale applications.
  • Continuous Innovation: The Spring ecosystem is continuously evolving, adapting to emerging technologies and trends in the software development landscape.

1.3 Limitations of Spring

  • Learning Curve: Spring has a steeper learning curve, especially for beginners, due to its extensive features and configurations.
  • XML Configuration: In earlier versions, extensive XML configurations were required, which could lead to a verbose and complex setup.
  • Runtime Overhead: Spring’s powerful features may introduce some runtime overhead, impacting the performance compared to lightweight frameworks for certain use cases.
  • Annotation Overuse: In some cases, excessive use of annotations may lead to a cluttered codebase and reduced readability.
  • Integration Testing Challenges: Writing integration tests for Spring applications can be challenging, especially when dealing with complex setups and external dependencies.
  • Dependency on Container: Spring applications often rely on the Spring container, and breaking away from this dependency may be challenging for some projects.
  • Size and Footprint: Spring’s extensive features contribute to a larger size and memory footprint, which might not be suitable for resource-constrained environments.
  • Overhead for Simple Projects: For small and simple projects, the overhead introduced by the Spring framework may be considered unnecessary.
  • Dynamic Runtime Changes: Making dynamic runtime changes without restarting the application might be challenging in certain scenarios.
  • Community Modules Compatibility: Some third-party or community modules might not be fully compatible with the latest Spring versions, leading to potential compatibility issues.

2. Prerequisites for a Spring Boot Application

Prerequisites for developing a Spring Boot application may vary depending on the specific requirements and technologies involved. However, here are some general prerequisites:

  • Java Development Kit (JDK): Install the latest version of JDK as Spring Boot applications are Java-based. You can download it from the official Oracle website or use OpenJDK.
  • Integrated Development Environment (IDE): Choose an IDE such as Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, or Visual Studio Code for a more efficient development experience. These IDEs offer Spring Boot plugins and support for Java development.
  • Build Tool: Spring Boot projects are often built using tools like Maven or Gradle. Install the preferred build tool and configure it in your development environment.
  • Spring Boot CLI (Command Line Interface): While not mandatory, the Spring Boot CLI can be useful for quick prototyping and testing. Install it if you want to explore command-line development with Spring Boot.
  • Database: If your application requires database access, ensure that the necessary database software is installed. Spring Boot supports various databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, and H2.
  • Dependencies and Starter Templates: Familiarize yourself with the Spring Initializr (https://start.spring.io/) to generate a basic project structure. Choose dependencies based on your application needs, such as web, data, security, etc.
  • Version Control System: Use a version control system like Git to manage your source code. This is crucial for collaboration and code versioning.
  • Understand the Basics of Spring: Have a fundamental understanding of the Spring framework concepts, including Dependency Injection (DI), Inversion of Control (IoC), and the core principles that Spring Boot builds upon.
  • Web Development Basics: If you are developing a web application, it’s beneficial to have a basic understanding of web development concepts, including HTTP, REST, and MVC architecture.
  • Testing Knowledge: Familiarize yourself with testing concepts and tools. Spring Boot provides support for unit testing, integration testing, and more.
  • Containerization (Optional): If you plan to deploy your application using containers (e.g., Docker), some knowledge of containerization concepts will be helpful.

3. Spring boot Hello World application example

Here is a basic spring boot example.

3.1 Create a Spring Boot Project and Add Dependencies

You can use the Spring Initializr to generate a basic Spring Boot project with the necessary dependencies.

Spring boot tutorial with Hello World application
Fig. 1: Project Structure

Include the necessary dependencies in your project’s pom.xml file.

  • spring-boot-starter-web: This dependency includes the essential libraries and configurations for building a web-based application using Spring Boot. It includes the Spring MVC framework, embedded web server (like Tomcat), and other components needed for web development.
  • spring-boot-starter-test: This dependency is designed for testing purposes and includes the necessary dependencies to write and run tests in a Spring Boot application. It provides integration with testing frameworks like JUnit, TestNG, and the Spring TestContext Framework. The test scope ensures that these dependencies are only used during the testing phase and are not included in the production build.

3.2 Configure Application Properties

The application.properties file in a Spring Boot application is a configuration file that allows you to externalize application configuration. It is a key-value pair file where you can define various properties that influence the behavior of your Spring Boot application. This file is often used to configure settings related to databases, server ports, logging, and other application-specific parameters.

In this example, we have added the property server.port with the value 8180 to specify the port number for the server to listen on. You can change the port number to any desired value according to your application’s needs.

# Server Configuration


3.3 Create a Controller

In Spring Boot, a controller is a class that handles incoming HTTP requests and produces an appropriate response. Controllers play a crucial role in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, which is commonly used for designing web applications. They receive input from the user, process it, and return the output as a response.

Create a simple controller class to handle requests. For example, create a file named HelloController.java in the src/main/java/com/example/demo directory:

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

public class HelloController {

    public String hello() {
        return "Hello, Spring Boot!";

3.4 Create Main class

The main class is responsible for starting the Spring Boot application and initializing the necessary configurations and beans. It serves as the entry point for the application and triggers the execution of the application’s components, such as controllers, services, and repositories.

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

public class DemoApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(DemoApplication.class, args);

3.5 Run the Application

Run the application by executing the DemoApplication class, which contains the main method. You can do this from your IDE or using the following Maven command in the terminal:

mvn spring-boot:run

Below is the console output of this command:

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] ----------------------------
[INFO] Building your-spring-boot-app 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] --------------------------------[ jar ]---------------------------------
[INFO] >>> spring-boot-maven-plugin:2.6.2:run (default-cli) > test-compile @ your-spring-boot-app >>>
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:3.2.0:resources (default-resources) @ your-spring-boot-app ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 1 resource
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:2.6.2:run (default-cli) @ your-spring-boot-app ---
[INFO] Attaching agents: []

[INFO] Started your-spring-boot-app in 3.524 seconds (JVM running for 4.103)
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:2.6.2:run (default-cli) @ your-spring-boot-app ---

3.6 Test the Application

Open your web browser and navigate to http://localhost:8180/hello. You should see the message Hello, Spring Boot! displayed.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, the “Spring Boot Hello World Example Beginners Guide” serves as an excellent introduction to the fundamental concepts of developing applications with Spring Boot. The guide empowers beginners by providing a step-by-step walkthrough of creating a simple “Hello World” application, laying the foundation for further exploration of the powerful Spring Boot framework.

Key takeaways from the guide include:

  • Streamlined Development: Spring Boot’s convention-over-configuration approach simplifies the development process, allowing developers to focus on business logic rather than intricate setups.
  • Auto-Configuration: The guide highlights the efficiency of Spring Boot’s auto-configuration, where default settings intelligently adapt to the application’s needs, reducing the need for manual configuration.
  • Dependency Management: Introduction to the Spring Initializr emphasizes the ease of managing project dependencies, enabling developers to select and include essential components tailored to their application requirements.
  • RESTful Web Services: The guide introduces the basics of handling HTTP requests and responses, showcasing the development of a RESTful endpoint—a fundamental skill for building modern web applications.
  • Testing Support: Emphasis on testing underscores Spring Boot’s commitment to robust software engineering. The guide encourages unit testing, providing a glimpse into the framework’s testing capabilities.
  • Further Exploration: By concluding with the creation of a minimal yet functional Spring Boot application, the guide sparks curiosity for exploring advanced topics such as database integration, security, and microservices architecture.
  • Resourceful Community: The guide indirectly emphasizes the wealth of resources available within the Spring Boot community, including documentation, forums, and tutorials, providing ongoing support for learners.


An experience full-stack engineer well versed with Core Java, Spring/Springboot, MVC, Security, AOP, Frontend (Angular & React), and cloud technologies (such as AWS, GCP, Jenkins, Docker, K8).
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