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Yatin
The author is graduated in Electronics & Telecommunication. During his studies, he has been involved with a significant number of projects ranging from programming and software engineering to telecommunications analysis. He works as a technical lead in the information technology sector where he is primarily involved with projects based on Java/J2EE technologies platform and novel UI technologies.

Java Heap and Stack

Hello readers, in this tutorial, we will learn about Heap and Stack in Java.

1. Introduction

In Java, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) divides the memory into two parts i.e. Java Heap Space and Java Stack Memory.

1.1 Java Heap Space?

  • Created by the JVM when it starts and the memory is allocated until the application is running
  • Memory is allocated to Java Runtime (JRE) classes and the objects
  • The objects created in the heap space has global access and can be accessed from anywhere in the application
  • Managed by Garbage collection to perform the memory cleaning activity by removing the objects that don’t have any reference

1.2 Java Stack Memory?

  • Used for the execution of threads
  • Memory is allocated to methods, local variables, and reference variables
  • Memory is referenced in LIFO (Last in first out) order and allows fast access to those values
  • On invoking a method, a block is created in the Stack memory to hold the local variables and reference to other objects in the method. As the method ends its execution, the created block becomes unused and is available for the next method
Java Heap - java-heap-stack-tutorial-img1
Fig. 1: Pictorial representation of Heap Space & Stack Memory

2. Heap Space vs. Stack Memory?

 Heap SpaceStack Memory
BasicAllocates memory to JRE classes and objects. Starting JDK7 String pool is also a part of this spaceAllocates memory to methods, local variables (like int, boolean, float, etc.), and reference variables
MemoryOffers dynamic allocation of memory and is stored in any orderReferences in LIFO (Last in first out) order and thus offer recursion
SizeMuch bigger than Stack Memory 
Memory ResizingMemory size can be adjusted by using the JVM -Xms and -Xmx parametersMemory size can be increased by readjusting the JVM -XSS parameter
VisibilityVisible to all threads as it offers global access for the objectsVisible only to the owner’s thread
ExceptionThrows java.lang.OutOfMemoryError if no Heap space is left to allocate memory to the new objectThrows java.lang.StackOverFlowError when Stack memory is filled up with an infinite recursive class

3. Sample program

Let us understand the different memory allocations through the sample code.

Employee.java

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package java.memoryallocation;
 
// As soon as this program run it loads the runtime classes into the Heap space.
public class Employee {
 
    // The main() found creates a Stack memory that will be used by the main() method thread.
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // This local variable is created and stored in the stack memory of the main() method.
        int index = 1;
 
        // This object creation is created in the Heap space and the Stack memory contains a reference for it.
        Object myObject = new Object();
 
        // This object creation is created in the Heap space and the Stack memory contains a reference for it.
        Employee myEmployee = new Employee();
 
        // Now calling the "someMethod()", a block in the top of the Stack memory is created and is used by
        // the "someMethod()" method. Since Java is pass-by-value in nature, a new reference to Object is created
        // in the "someMethod" stack block.
        myEmployee.someMethod(myObject);
     
    }   // At this point the "main()" terminates as it has done it job and the Stack space created for
        // "main()" method is destroyed. Also, the program ends and hence the JRE frees all the memory
        // and ends the program execution.
 
    private void someMethod(Object object) {
        // The string created goes to the "String Pool" that residers in the heap space and the reference of it
        // is created in the "someMethod()" stack space.
        String name = object.toString();
        System.out.println("Name= " + name);
     
    }   // At this point the "someMethod()" terminates and the memory block allocated for "someMethod()"
        // in the Stack space becomes free.
}

4. StackOverFlowErrror and OutOfMemoryError?

StackOverflowErrorOutOfMemoryError
Related to Stack memoryRelated to Heap space
Occurs when Stack memory is fullOccurs when Heap space is full
Thrown when we call a method and the Stack memory is fullThrown we create a new object and the Heap space is full
Can occur due to infinite recursions of a methodCan occur due to the creation of multiple objects
Ensuring method execution is completed and the Stack memory is reclaimedGarbage collection helps in reclaiming Heap space and avoid OutOfMemory error

5. Summary

In this tutorial, we learned about Heap and Stack in Java. We saw the Heap Space vs. Stack Memory comparison. We have also created a sample program to understand the different memory allocations. You can download the sample class from the Downloads section.

That is all for this tutorial and I hope the article served you with whatever you were looking for. Happy Learning and do not forget to share!

6. Additional Knowledge

7. Download the Eclipse Project

This was an example of Java Heap and Stack.

Download
You can download the full source code of this example here: Java Heap and Stack

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zahid rahman
1 month ago

Fantastic article