How to generate Maven wrapper files?

Maven Wrapper is a convenient tool that simplifies project build and dependency management by encapsulating the Maven build tool within the project itself. With a small set of files, including mvnw (Maven Wrapper script), projects can be built without requiring a pre-installed Maven version. This self-contained approach ensures consistent builds across different environments, reducing compatibility issues. Let us delve into a practical approach to understanding how to generate maven wrapper files.

1. What is a Maven?

Maven is a build automation tool used primarily for Java projects. It helps developers manage and organize dependencies, build and test their code, and package it into a distributable format, such as a JAR file. Maven uses a project object model (POM) file to define the project structure, build process, and dependencies. The POM file includes information such as the project’s name, version, dependencies, and build instructions. Maven uses this information to automatically download and manage the required dependencies, compile the source code, run tests, and package the application. Maven is widely used in the Java development community and is considered one of the most popular build tools available.

1.1 Advantages

  • Dependency Management: Maven’s primary advantage is its excellent dependency management. It automatically manages dependencies and downloads the necessary libraries from a central repository.
  • Build Automation: Maven simplifies the build process by automating it. Developers only need to provide build instructions in the POM file, and Maven handles the rest.
  • Consistent Build Environment: Maven provides a consistent build environment across different machines and operating systems. This ensures that the build process is repeatable and predictable.
  • Extensibility: Maven is highly extensible through plugins. Developers can create custom plugins to add functionality to the build process.
  • Community Support: Maven has a large and active community that provides support and shares knowledge through forums, blogs, and documentation.

1.2 Disadvantages

  • Steep Learning Curve: Maven has a steep learning curve, especially for developers who are new to the tool. The POM file can be complex and overwhelming, and it may take some time to understand the various configurations and settings.
  • Limited Flexibility: Maven’s opinionated approach can be limiting in some cases. Developers may find it difficult to customize the build process beyond what is provided by the tool.
  • Slow Build Times: Maven’s dependency resolution and build process can be slow, especially for large projects with many dependencies.

2. Generate the mvnw and mvnw.cmd

Creating Maven Wrapper files (mvnw and mvnw.cmd) involves a few steps. Below is a simplified example of a Unix-like system (Linux, macOS) and Windows.

2.1 Create mvnw for Unix-like systems

This file is a bash script that acts as a wrapper for Maven commands in Unix-like systems.

Code Snippet


./mvnw clean install "$@"

2.2 Create mvnw.cmd for Windows

This file is a batch script that acts as a wrapper for Maven commands in Windows systems.

Code Snippet

@echo off

if not defined MAVEN_HOME set MAVEN_HOME=.mvn

call %MAVEN_HOME%\mvnw.cmd clean install %MAVEN_CMD_LINE_ARGS%


Place these files in the root of your Maven project. Make sure the mvnw file has execution permissions on Unix-like systems (you can use chmod +x mvnw).

Now, when contributors run ./mvnw clean install, it will automatically download and use the specified Maven version, ensuring consistency across different environments. The same goes for mvnw.cmd on Windows (mvnw.cmd clean install).

3. Maven Wrapper in Version Control

Including the Maven Wrapper in version control is a good practice to ensure that all contributors to a project use the same version of Maven, making builds more consistent across different environments.

Here’s how you typically manage Maven Wrapper files in a version-controlled project:

3.1 Add Maven Wrapper Files to Version Control

Include the following files in your version control system (such as Git):

  • mvnw: The Maven Wrapper script for Unix-like systems.
  • mvnw.cmd: The Maven Wrapper script for Windows.
  • .mvn/wrapper/: This directory contains additional Maven Wrapper files, including maven-wrapper.jar and These files are used by the wrapper to download the correct version of Maven.

Ensure that these files are committed and pushed to the version control repository.

3.2 Specify Maven Wrapper Version

In the file (located in the .mvn/wrapper/ directory), specify the desired Maven version. For example:



When contributors run the Maven Wrapper (./mvnw or mvnw.cmd), it checks this URL and automatically downloads the specified Maven version if it’s not already available in the project.

3.3 Include .mvn/wrapper/maven-wrapper.jar in Version Control

While the JAR file (maven-wrapper.jar) is typically downloaded automatically by the Maven Wrapper, including it in version control ensures that the project has a consistent starting point. If, for any reason, the JAR file cannot be downloaded, having it in version control serves as a fallback.

By including these files in version control, you make it easy for anyone cloning the repository to build the project without worrying about installing a specific version of Maven. This approach improves project portability and reduces potential issues related to different Maven versions across contributors.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, Maven Wrapper emerges as a valuable tool in software development, streamlining project builds and enhancing collaboration by encapsulating the Maven build tool within the project itself. By generating the mvnw and mvnw.cmd scripts, the build process becomes consistent across different platforms, sparing contributors the need to install Maven separately. The inclusion of Maven Wrapper files in version control, such as Git, further reinforces this standardization, ensuring that everyone working on the project employs the same Maven environment. Particularly noteworthy is the Maven Wrapper’s capability to specify a desired Maven version through configuration files, enabling projects to effortlessly adapt to changing requirements while maintaining a reproducible and reliable build process. This comprehensive approach not only simplifies project setup but also mitigates compatibility issues, fostering a more seamless and collaborative development experience.


An experience full-stack engineer well versed with Core Java, Spring/Springboot, MVC, Security, AOP, Frontend (Angular & React), and cloud technologies (such as AWS, GCP, Jenkins, Docker, K8).
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