Home » Core Java » The Ternary Conditional Operator ? : in Java

About Sadia Sher

This is Sadia (Backend Developer-Java). I have graduated from Jinnah University For Women, Karachi, Pakistan. Coding is my first love, therefore I am a developer. Why Java? Because It has been found as the most diverse language with plenty of APIs, frameworks and integration support. Other than this I am a Yogi. Ever since I practice yoga my lifestyle changes to morning bird. This strengthens my core just as JVM strengthens Java.

The Ternary Conditional Operator ? : in Java

In this article, we will explore the ternary operator ?(question mark) and :(colon) in Java, what is its purpose, and why do we use it?

1. What is a Ternary Operator?

The operator ? : in Java, is a ternary operator. It uses to evaluate a boolean expression. It is also known as a conditional operator. It consists of three operands separated by two operators: question mark (?) and colon(:). Its structure is as below:

z = (boolean expression to evaluate) 
    ? (value assign to 'z' if true) 
    : (value assign to 'z' if false)

In above example, parenthesis are optional.

2. Why we use it?

? in Java

It is much similar to the if-else statement. However, the goal of the ternary operator is to evaluate the expression and decide which one of the values assign in a variable. Unlike the if-else statement, where a block of code spreads over several lines, it is one line statement.

3. Examples using the ternary operator in Java

public class TernaryOperatorBooleanTest {
	public static void main(String[] args) {		
		int totalMangoes = 6;
            // ternary operator example
		boolean isDozen = totalMangoes == 12 ? true : false;
		System.out.println("Mangoes count is dozen:"+isDozen);
	}
}

In the preceding code, totalMangoes is set as 6, then isDozen value is assigned by evaluating the condition totalMangoes == 12, if the total mangoes are equals to 12 then isDozen is set as true otherwise false.

public class TernaryOperatorStringTest {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		int month = 6;
    // ternary operator example
		String season = (month >= 4 && month <=10) ? "summer" : "winter";
		System.out.println("month is in season:"+season);
	}
}

In the above example, boolean expression enclosed in parenthesis makes compound expression means both expressions should evaluate to get a final boolean value and set value in season accordingly.

You can also check the Ternary Operator Java Example.

4. Download the Source Code

This is an example of the ternary operator ? : in Java.

Download
You can download the full source code of ternary operators from here: The Ternary Conditional Operators: ? in Java

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Larry Kenchel
Larry Kenchel
4 months ago

The first example is poor as it is simpler to write boolean isDozen = totalMangoes == 12;

Paul A. Gureghian
Paul A. Gureghian
4 months ago

Is the value of the second operand always ‘true’ and the third operand always ‘false’ even if they are strings ?