Home » Core Java » What is a Field in Java

About Mary Zheng

Mary Zheng
Mary has graduated from Mechanical Engineering department at ShangHai JiaoTong University. She also holds a Master degree in Computer Science from Webster University. During her studies she has been involved with a large number of projects ranging from programming and software engineering. She works as a senior Software Engineer in the telecommunications sector where she acts as a leader and works with others to design, implement, and monitor the software solution.

What is a Field in Java

1. Introduction

Java is an object-oriented programming language which uses “object” concept to group data and methods in a class. A variable defined in a class is called a field. A field is declared by specifying its type and name.

In this example, I will demonstrate:

  • Declare a field for the primitive data type, object, and collection
  • Add static, final, transient, and access modifiers to fields
  • Access fields via Java reflection
  • Inherits fields from the parent class

2. Technologies Used

The example code in this article was built and run using:

  • Java 11
  • Maven 3.3.9
  • Eclipse Oxygen
  • Junit 4.12

3. Maven Project

In this step, I will create a Java maven project which has two packages:

  • jcg.zheng.demo.data – this package includes four classes: PrimitiveFields, ObjectFields, CollectionFields, and EnumExample.
  • jcg.zheng.demo.modifier – this package includes four classes: AccessModifiers, InstanceModifiers, RuntimeModifiers, and ChildExample.

3.1 Dependencies

I will include Junit in the pom.xml.

pom.xml

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>jcg.zheng.demo</groupId>
	<artifactId>java-field-demo</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<build>
		<sourceDirectory>src</sourceDirectory>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.8.0</version>
				<configuration>
					<release>11</release>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>junit</groupId>
			<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
			<version>4.12</version>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>
</project>

3.1.1 Enum Example

In this step, I will create an EnumExample which is used in an ObjectFields class.

EnumExample.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

public enum EnumExample {
	GOLD, SILVER;
}

3.2 Field Modifier

Java supports three types of modifiers:

  • Access modifiers: public, protected, private, and default
  • Run-time modifiers: transient and volatile
  • Instance modifiers: static and final

In this step, I will create three classes to demonstrate how to use these modifiers on fields.

3.2.1 Access Modifier

Java provides four access modifiers:

  • private – a field with the private modifier can be accessed only inside the same class.
  • default – a field without any access modifier can be accessed inside the class itself and in the same package as this class.
  • public – a field with the public modifier can be accessed from all classes.
  • protected – a field with the protected modifier can be accessed by sub-classes, the same class, and the classes in the same package.

In this step, I will create an AccessModifiers class which has four fields, one for each access modifier.

AccessModifiers.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

public class AccessModifiers {

	private int intField;

	public Long longField;

	Integer packageField;

	protected String stringField;

	public AccessModifiers(final int privateIntField) {
		super();
		this.intField = privateIntField;
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "FieldAccessExample [packageField=" + packageField + ", intField=" + intField + ", stringField="
				+ stringField + ", longField=" + longField + "]";
	}

}

3.2.2 Instance Modifier

Java provides two instance modifiers:

  • static – a field with the static modifier can be accessed before any objects of its class are created, and without reference to any object. There is only a single copy of static variable created and shared among all the instances of the class.
  • final – a field with the final modifier cannot be assigned again. If a final variable holds a reference to an object, then the state of the object may be changed by operations on the object, but the variable always refer to the same object.

In this step, I will create an InstanceModifiers which has four static final variables and two final variables.

InstanceModifiers.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields;

public class InstanceModifiers {

	public static final String INT_FIELD = "intField";

	public static final String LONG_FIELD = "longField";

	public static final String PACKAGE_FIELD = "packageField";

	public static final String STRING_FIELD = "stringField";

	final String field1 = "Fixed Value";
	
	final PrimitiveFields field2 = new PrimitiveFields();

}

3.2.3 Run-time Modifier

Java supports two run-time modifiers:

  • transient – a field with the transient modifier will not be serialized.
  • volatile – a field with the volatile modifier does not cache value.

In this step, I will create a RuntimeModifiers which has transient volatile variables and two final variables.

RuntimeModifiers.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import java.io.Serializable;

public class RuntimeModifiers implements Serializable {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 4192336936121085734L;
	
	private String name;
	private transient String password;
	private static volatile RuntimeModifiers instance;

	public static RuntimeModifiers getInstance() {
		if (instance == null) {
			synchronized (RuntimeModifiers.class) {
				if (instance == null) {
					instance = new RuntimeModifiers();
				}
			}
		}

		return instance;
	}

	public String getName() {
		return name;
	}

	public void setName(String name) {
		this.name = name;
	}

	public String getPassword() {
		return password;
	}

	public void setPassword(String password) {
		this.password = password;
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "RuntimeModifierExample [name=" + name + ", password=" + password + "]";
	}

}

3.3 Primitive Data Type

Java supports eight primitive data type: char, byte, int, short, long, float, double, and boolean. A primitive data type variable has a default value.

In this step, I will create a PrimitiveFields class which has eight fields, one for each primitive type.

PrimitiveFields.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

public class PrimitiveFields {

	private boolean booleanField;
	private byte byteField;
	private char charField;
	private double doubleField;
	private float floatField;
	private int intField;
	private long longField;
	private short shortField;

	public byte getByteField() {
		return byteField;
	}

	public char getCharField() {
		return charField;
	}

	public double getDoubleField() {
		return doubleField;
	}

	public float getFloatField() {
		return floatField;
	}

	public int getIntField() {
		return intField;
	}

	public long getLongField() {
		return longField;
	}

	public short getShortField() {
		return shortField;
	}

	public boolean isBooleanField() {
		return booleanField;
	}

	public void setBooleanField(boolean booleanField) {
		this.booleanField = booleanField;
	}

	public void setByteField(byte byteField) {
		this.byteField = byteField;
	}

	public void setCharField(char charField) {
		this.charField = charField;
	}

	public void setDoubleField(double doubleField) {
		this.doubleField = doubleField;
	}

	public void setFloatField(float floatField) {
		this.floatField = floatField;
	}

	public void setIntField(int intField) {
		this.intField = intField;
	}

	public void setLongField(long longField) {
		this.longField = longField;
	}

	public void setShortField(short shortField) {
		this.shortField = shortField;
	}

}

3.4 Object

Java provides java.lang.Object class which is the parent class of all classes.

In this step, I will create an ObjectFields class which has fields belong to object types. It’s a good practice to initialize an object field to avoid the NullPointerException.

ObjectFields.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

public class ObjectFields {

	private EnumExample enumField;

	private PrimitiveFields objectField;

	private String stringField;

	public EnumExample getEnumField() {
		return enumField;
	}

	public PrimitiveFields getObjectField() {
		return objectField;
	}

	public String getStringField() {
		return stringField;
	}

	public void setEnumField(EnumExample enumField) {
		this.enumField = enumField;
	}

	public void setObjectField(PrimitiveFields objectField) {
		this.objectField = objectField;
	}

	public void setStringField(String stringField) {
		this.stringField = stringField;
	}

}

3.5 Collection

In this step, I will create a CollectionFields class which has collection fields. It’s a good practice to initialize the collection object to avoid the NullPointerException.

CollectionFields.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class CollectionFields<T> {

	private int[] arrayField;

	private List<T> listField_initialized = new ArrayList<>();

	public void addListField_initialized(T element) {
		this.listField_initialized.add(element);
	}

	public int[] getArrayField() {
		return arrayField;
	}

	public List<T> getListField_initialized() {
		return listField_initialized;
	}

	public void setArrayField(int[] arrayField) {
		this.arrayField = arrayField;
	}

}

3.6 Inheritance

In this step, I will create a ChildExample class which extends from AccessModifiers. The parent’s protected and public fields are available to the child class.

ChildExample.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

public class ChildExample extends AccessModifiers {

	private String name;

	public ChildExample(final int privateIntField, final String name) {
		super(privateIntField);
		this.name = name;
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "ChildExample [name=" + name + ", packageField=" + packageField + ", stringField="
				+ stringField + ", longField=" + longField + "]";
	}

}

4. JUnit Test

4.1 PrimitiveFieldsTest

In this step, I will create a PrimitiveFieldsTest class to test the primitive data type fields.

PrimitiveFieldsTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertFalse;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;

import org.junit.Test;

import jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields;

/**
 * Test the default value for the field with primitive type and the getter and setter
 * @author Mary Zheng
 *
 */
public class PrimitiveFieldsTest {

	private PrimitiveFields testClass = new PrimitiveFields();

	@Test
	public void test_field_boolean() {
		assertFalse(testClass.isBooleanField());
		
		testClass.setBooleanField(true);
		assertTrue(testClass.isBooleanField());
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_char() {
		assertEquals('\u0000', testClass.getCharField());
		
		testClass.setCharField('M');
		assertEquals('M', testClass.getCharField());
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_double() {
		assertEquals(0.00, testClass.getDoubleField(), 2);

		testClass.setDoubleField(34.8);
		assertEquals(34.8, testClass.getDoubleField(), 2);
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_int() {
		assertEquals(0, testClass.getIntField());
		
		testClass.setIntField(1);
		assertEquals(1, testClass.getIntField());
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_long() {
		assertEquals(0, testClass.getLongField());
		
		testClass.setLongField(100l);
		assertEquals(100l, testClass.getLongField());
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_short() {
		assertEquals(0, testClass.getShortField());
		
		testClass.setShortField((short) 1);
		assertEquals(1, testClass.getShortField());
	}
	
	@Test
	public void test_field_byte() {
		assertEquals(0, testClass.getByteField());
		
		testClass.setByteField((byte) 1);
		assertEquals(1, testClass.getByteField());
	}
	
	@Test
	public void test_field_float() {
		assertEquals(0.00, testClass.getFloatField(), 2);

		testClass.setFloatField(34.8f);
		assertEquals(34.8, testClass.getFloatField(), 2);
	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=PrimitiveFieldsTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFieldsTest
Tests run: 8, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.13 sec

Results :

Tests run: 8, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

4.2 ObjectFieldsTest

In this step, I will create an ObjectFieldsTest class to initialize and read the object fields.

ObjectFieldsTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertNull;

import org.junit.Test;

import jcg.zheng.demo.data.EnumExample;
import jcg.zheng.demo.data.ObjectFields;
import jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields;

public class ObjectFieldsTest {

	private ObjectFields testClass = new ObjectFields();

	@Test
	public void test_field_enum() {
		assertNull(testClass.getEnumField());

		testClass.setEnumField(EnumExample.GOLD);
		assertEquals(EnumExample.GOLD, testClass.getEnumField());
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_object() {
		assertNull(testClass.getObjectField());

		testClass.setObjectField(new PrimitiveFields());
		assertEquals(0, testClass.getObjectField().getIntField());

	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_string() {
		assertNull(testClass.getStringField());

		testClass.setStringField("Mary");
		assertEquals("Mary", testClass.getStringField());
	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=ObjectFieldsTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.data.ObjectFieldsTest
Tests run: 3, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.122 sec

Results :

Tests run: 3, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

4.3 CollectionFieldsTest

In this step, I will create a CollectionFieldsTest class to initialize and add an element to a collection field.

CollectionFieldsTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.data;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertFalse;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;

import org.junit.Test;

public class CollectionFieldsTest {

	private CollectionFields testClass = new CollectionFields();

	@Test
	public void test_field_intArray() {
		int[] arrayField = new int[2];
		arrayField[0] = 1;
		arrayField[1] = 4;
		testClass.setArrayField(arrayField);
		
		assertEquals(1, testClass.getArrayField()[0]);
		assertEquals(4, testClass.getArrayField()[1]);
	}

	@Test
	public void test_field_list() {
		assertTrue(testClass.getListField_initialized().isEmpty());

		testClass.addListField_initialized(5);
		assertFalse(testClass.getListField_initialized().isEmpty());
		assertEquals(5, testClass.getListField_initialized().get(0).intValue());
	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=CollectionFieldsTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.data.CollectionFieldsTest
Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.119 sec

Results :

Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

4.4 AccessModifiersTest

In this step, I will create an AccessModifierTest class that has public, protected, private, and default package fields.

AccessModifiodersTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertNull;

import org.junit.Test;

public class AccessModifiersTest {

	private AccessModifiers testClass = new AccessModifiers(3);

	@Test
	public void child_class_can_access_default_protected_public() {
		System.out.println(testClass.toString());
		assertNull(testClass.packageField);
		assertNull(testClass.longField);
		assertNull(testClass.stringField);

		testClass.packageField = Integer.valueOf(5);
		testClass.stringField = "Mary";
		testClass.longField = Long.valueOf(12);
		
		System.out.println(testClass.toString());
		assertEquals(5, testClass.packageField.intValue());
		assertEquals("Mary", testClass.stringField);
		assertEquals(12, testClass.longField.intValue());
	}
}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=AccessModifiersTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.AccessModifiersTest
FieldAccessExample [packageField=null, intField=3, stringField=null, longField=null]
FieldAccessExample [packageField=5, intField=3, stringField=Mary, longField=12]
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.234 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
  • line 5, 6: The private fields can be accessed within the same class.

4.5 ChildExampleTest

In this step, I will create a ChildExampleTest class which shows the child object inherits the public and protected fields from the parent class.

ChildExampleTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertNull;

import org.junit.Test;

import jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.ChildExample;

public class ChildExampleTest {
	private ChildExample testClass = new ChildExample(3, "Test");

	@Test
	public void child_class_can_access_default_protected_public() {
		System.out.println(testClass.toString());
		assertNull(testClass.packageField);
		assertNull(testClass.stringField);
		assertNull(testClass.longField);
		
		testClass.packageField = Integer.valueOf(1);
		testClass.stringField = "Zheng";
		testClass.longField = Long.valueOf(2);
	 
		System.out.println(testClass.toString());
		assertEquals(1, testClass.packageField.intValue());
		assertEquals("Zheng", testClass.stringField);
		assertEquals(2, testClass.longField.intValue());
	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=ChildExampleTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.ChildExampleTest
ChildExample [name=Test, packageField=null, stringField=null, longField=null]
ChildExample [name=Test, packageField=1, stringField=Zheng, longField=2]
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.203 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

4.6 InstanceModifiersTest

In this step, I will create an InstanceModifiersTest class which shows final fields are not assignable.

InstanceModifiersTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

import org.junit.Test;

public class InstanceModifiersTest {

	private InstanceModifiers testClass = new InstanceModifiers();

	@Test
	public void test_static() {
		assertEquals("intField", InstanceModifiers.INT_FIELD);
		assertEquals("longField", InstanceModifiers.LONG_FIELD);
		assertEquals("packageField", InstanceModifiers.PACKAGE_FIELD);
		assertEquals("stringField", InstanceModifiers.STRING_FIELD);
	}
	
	@Test
	public void test_final() {
		assertEquals("Fixed Value", testClass.field1);
		
	//	testClass.field2 = new PrimitiveFields();
	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=InstanceModifiersTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.InstanceModifiersTest
Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.164 sec

Results :

Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
  • line 23 : can not re-assign the final field.

4.7 RuntimeModifersTest

In this step, I will create a Junit test to show the transient fields are not serialized.

RuntimeModifiersTest.java

package jcg.zheng.demo.modifier;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertNull;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;

import org.junit.Test;

public class RuntimeModifiersTest {
	private static final String SERIALIZED_FILE_NAME = "transient.ser";
	private RuntimeModifiers testClass = RuntimeModifiers.getInstance();

	@Test
	public void transient_not_serialized() {

		serializedObj();

		RuntimeModifiers deObj = deserializedObj();
		assertNull(deObj.getPassword());

		System.out.println(deObj.toString());
	}

	private void serializedObj() {
		try {
			ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(SERIALIZED_FILE_NAME));

			testClass.setName("Mary");
			testClass.setPassword("shouldNotSerialized");

			oos.writeObject(testClass);
			oos.close();
			System.out.println(testClass.toString());

		} catch (IOException e) {

			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

	private RuntimeModifiers deserializedObj() {
		RuntimeModifiers ret = null;
		try {
			ObjectInputStream ooi = new ObjectInputStream(new FileInputStream(SERIALIZED_FILE_NAME));

			ret = (RuntimeModifiers) ooi.readObject();

			ooi.close();

		} catch (IOException | ClassNotFoundException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}

		return ret;

	}

}

Execute mvn test -Dtest=RuntimeModifiersTest and capture output here.

Output

-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.RuntimeModifiersTest
RuntimeModifierExample [name=Mary, password=shouldNotSerialized]
RuntimeModifierExample [name=Mary, password=null]
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.217 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
  • line 5: The original object’s password has value
  • line 6: The transient password is not serialized

5. Access Field via Reflection

In this step, I will create a FieldReflectionDemo to show how to read and write the fields via java.lang.reflect package.

FieldReflectionDemo.java

package jcg.zheng.demo;

import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;

import jcg.zheng.demo.data.CollectionFields;
import jcg.zheng.demo.data.EnumExample;
import jcg.zheng.demo.data.ObjectFields;
import jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields;
import jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.AccessModifiers;
import jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.ChildExample;
import jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.InstanceModifiers;
import jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.RuntimeModifiers;

public class FieldReflectionDemo {

	public static void main(String[] args) {	 
		displayClassFields(EnumExample.GOLD);
		displayClassFields(new PrimitiveFields());
		displayClassFields(new ObjectFields());
		displayClassFields(new CollectionFields<Integer>());
		displayClassFields(new AccessModifiers(3));
		displayClassFields(new ChildExample(3, "Test"));
		displayClassFields(new InstanceModifiers());
		displayClassFields(new RuntimeModifiers());
	}

	private static void displayClassFields(Object obj) {
		try {
			Field[] allFields = obj.getClass().getDeclaredFields();
			System.out.print("\nClass " + obj.getClass().getName() + " has fields: ");

			for (Field f : allFields) {
				boolean updated = false;
				f.setAccessible(true);
				System.out.printf("\n\t %s %s = %s ", Modifier.toString(f.getModifiers()), f.getName(), f.get(obj));

				if (InstanceModifiers.INT_FIELD.equalsIgnoreCase(f.getName())) {
					f.set(obj, 47);
					updated = true;
				} else if (InstanceModifiers.PACKAGE_FIELD.equalsIgnoreCase(f.getName())) {
					f.set(obj, Integer.valueOf(2));
					updated = true;
				} else if (InstanceModifiers.STRING_FIELD.equalsIgnoreCase(f.getName())) {
					f.set(obj, "Java code geek");
					updated = true;
				} else if (InstanceModifiers.LONG_FIELD.equalsIgnoreCase(f.getName())) {
					f.set(obj, Long.valueOf(1000));
					updated = true;
				}

				if (updated) {
					System.out.printf("\n\t *Updated* %s %s = %s ", Modifier.toString(f.getModifiers()), f.getName(),
							f.get(obj));
				}

			}

		} catch (SecurityException | IllegalArgumentException | IllegalAccessException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

}

Execute it as a Java application java jcg.zheng.demo.FieldReflectionDemo and capture output here.

Output

c:\MaryZheng\Workspaces\jdk12\java-field-demo\target\classes>java jcg.zheng.demo.FieldReflectionDemo

Class jcg.zheng.demo.data.EnumExample has fields:
         public static final GOLD = GOLD
         public static final SILVER = SILVER
         private static final $VALUES = [Ljcg.zheng.demo.data.EnumExample;@25618e91
Class jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields has fields:
         private booleanField = false
         private byteField = 0
         private charField =
         private doubleField = 0.0
         private floatField = 0.0
         private intField = 0
         *Updated* private intField = 47
         private longField = 0
         *Updated* private longField = 1000
         private shortField = 0
Class jcg.zheng.demo.data.ObjectFields has fields:
         private enumField = null
         private objectField = null
         private stringField = null
         *Updated* private stringField = Java code geek
Class jcg.zheng.demo.data.CollectionFields has fields:
         private arrayField = null
         private listField_initialized = []
Class jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.AccessModifiers has fields:
         private intField = 3
         *Updated* private intField = 47
         public longField = null
         *Updated* public longField = 1000
          packageField = null
         *Updated*  packageField = 2
         protected stringField = null
         *Updated* protected stringField = Java code geek
Class jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.ChildExample has fields:
         private name = Test
Class jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.InstanceModifiers has fields:
         public static final INT_FIELD = intField
         public static final LONG_FIELD = longField
         public static final PACKAGE_FIELD = packageField
         public static final STRING_FIELD = stringField
         final field1 = Fixed Value
         final field2 = jcg.zheng.demo.data.PrimitiveFields@3ab39c39
Class jcg.zheng.demo.modifier.RuntimeModifiers has fields:
         private static final serialVersionUID = 4192336936121085734
         private name = null
         private transient password = null
         private static volatile instance = null
  • line 14, 16, 22, 28: the private fields are updated via reflection
  • line 30 : the public field is updated via reflection
  • line 34: the protected field is updated via reflection

6. Summary

In this example, I explained that a field is a building block of a Java object. It is defined by its type and name. I also demonstrated how to use Java modifiers to manage the availability, instance, and runtime behavior.

7. Download the Source Code

This example consists of a Maven project which demonstrates a Field in Java.

Download
You can download the full source code of this example here: What is a Field in Java
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Firouzeh Hejazi
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Your article is excellent